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Understanding food insecurity and its health consequences is important for identifying strategies to best target support for individuals and communities. Given the limited information that exists for indigenous groups in Latin America, this study aimed to understand the association between food insecurity and mental health in an indigenous population in Panama.
Cross-sectional data were collected using a survey conducted with Kuna Indians residing off the coast of Panama. Data sources included measures from the Panamanian prevalence of risk factors associated with CVD survey, and validated measures for psychosocial factors and standardised health outcome measures. Regression models with each of the mental health outcomes (depression, serious psychological distress, perceived stress) were used to examine the association between food insecurity and mental health outcomes.
Indigenous Kuna community residing on the San Blas Islands of Panama.
Two-hundred nine adults.
Food insecurity was reported by 83 % of the participants. Across demographic categories, the only significant difference was by age with higher prevalence in younger ages. After adjusting for demographics, higher food insecurity was significantly associated with higher number of depressive symptoms and more serious psychological distress, but not with levels of perceived stress.
Based on these findings, treatment for mental health in the Kuna community may need to account for social determinants of health and be tailored to meet the needs of younger age groups in this population. In addition, interventions designed to decrease food insecurity should be considered as a possible means for improving mental health.
There is a paucity of literature on the relationship between pre-existing mental health conditions and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. The aim was to examine the association between pre-existing mental health diagnosis and COVID-19 outcomes (positive screen, hospitalization, mortality).
Electronic medical record data for 30 976 adults tested for COVID-19 between March 2020 and 10th July 2020 was analyzed. COVID-19 outcomes included positive screen, hospitalization among screened positive, and mortality among screened positive and hospitalized. Primary independent variable, mental health disorders, was based on ICD-10 codes categorized as bipolar, internalizing, externalizing, and psychoses. Descriptive statistics were calculated, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the relationship between each mental health disorder and COVID-19 outcomes.
Adults with externalizing (odds ratio (OR) 0.67, 95%CI 0.57–0.79) and internalizing disorders (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.70–0.88) had lower odds of having a positive COVID-19 test in fully adjusted models. Adults with bipolar disorder had significantly higher odds of hospitalization in fully adjusted models (OR 4.27, 95% CI 2.06–8.86), and odds of hospitalization were significantly higher among those with externalizing disorders after adjusting for demographics (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.23–2.38). Mortality was significantly higher in the fully adjusted model for patients with bipolar disorder (hazard ratio 2.67, 95% CI 1.07–6.67).
Adults with mental health disorders, while less likely to test positive for COVID-19, were more likely to be hospitalized and to die in the hospital. Study results suggest the importance of developing interventions that incorporate elements designed to address smoking cessation, nutrition and physical activity counseling and other needs specific to this population to improve COVID-19 outcomes.
It is uncertain if long-term levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) affect cognition in middle age. We examined the association of LDL-C levels over 25 years with cognitive function in a prospective cohort of black and white US adults.
Lipids were measured at baseline (1985–1986; age: 18–30 years) and at serial examinations conducted over 25 years. Time-averaged cumulative LDL-C was calculated using the area under the curve for 3,328 participants with ≥3 LDL-C measurements and a cognitive function assessment. Cognitive function was assessed at the Year 25 examination with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], Rey Auditory Visual Learning Test [RAVLT], and Stroop Test. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-study (N = 707) was also completed at Year 25 to assess abnormal white matter tissue volume (AWMV) and gray matter cerebral blood flow volume (GM-CBFV) as secondary outcomes.
There were 15.6%, 32.9%, 28.9%, and 22.6% participants with time-averaged cumulative LDL-C <100 mg/dL, 101–129 mg/dL, 130–159 mg/dL, and ≥160 mg/dL, respectively. Standardized differences in all cognitive function test scores ranged from 0.16 SD lower to 0.09 SD higher across time-averaged LDL-C categories in comparison to those with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. After covariate adjustment, participants with higher versus lower time-averaged LDL-C had a lower RAVLT score (p-trend = 0.02) but no differences were present for DSST, Stroop Test, AWMV, or GM-CBFV.
Cumulative LDL-C was associated with small differences in memory, as assessed by RAVLT scores, but not other cognitive or brain MRI measures over 25 years of follow-up.
Simulations are playing an increasingly important role in paleobiology. When designing a simulation study, many decisions have to be made and common challenges will be encountered along the way. Here, we outline seven rules for executing a good simulation study. We cover topics including the choice of study question, the empirical data used as a basis for the study, statistical and methodological concerns, how to validate the study, and how to ensure it can be reproduced and extended by others. We hope that these rules and the accompanying examples will guide paleobiologists when using simulation tools to address fundamental questions about the evolution of life.
Excavations from 2013 to 2015 at the site of Shishan Marsh 1 (SM1) in the Azraq Basin of eastern Jordan have yielded substantial late middle Pleistocene lithic assemblages in association with faunal remains. Faunal preservation is poor, but multiple taxa have been identified, including cf. Panthera leo, Gazella sp., Bos cf. primigenius, Camelus sp., Equus spp., cf. Stephanorhinus hemitoechus, Palaeoloxodon cf. recki, and Elephas cf. hysudricus. The overall Azraq habitat may have been most similar to a savanna ecosystem, with a mixture of open grassland/shrub habitats and more closed vegetation along the wetlands margins. These taxa were drawn to the relatively lush oasis environment, where they were a dietary resource of the hominin groups exploiting the wetlands resources.
The present study aimed to examine the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) separately among parents and their adolescents.
Parents and adolescents completed the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) survey through the National Cancer Institute. The survey assessed daily intake frequencies of food/beverage groups, psychosocial, parenting and sociodemographic factors. Generalized linear models were run for both parents and adolescents, for a total of six models (three each): (i) sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) psychosocial factors; (iii) parent/caregiver factors.
Parent participants (n 1542) were predominantly 35–59 years old (86 %), female (73 %), non-Hispanic White (71 %) or non-Hispanic Black (17 %), with household income <$US 100 000 (79 %). Adolescents (n 805) were aged 12–14 years (50 %), non-Hispanic White (66 %) and non-Hispanic Black (15 %). Parents consumed 2·9 cups fruits and vegetables (F&V) daily, while adolescents consumed 2·2 cups daily. Educational attainment (higher education had greater FVI) and sex (men consumed more than women; all P<0·001) were significant FVI predictors. Parents with greater autonomous and controlled motivation, self-efficacy and preferences for fruit reported higher FVI (all P<0·001). Similarly, adolescents with greater autonomous and controlled motivation, self-efficacy and knowledge reported higher FVI (all P<0·001). Parenting factors of importance were co-deciding how many F&V teens should have, rules, having F&V in the home and cooking meals from scratch (all P<0·05).
Findings suggest factors that impact FVI among parents and their adolescent(s), which highlight the importance of the role of parent behaviour and can inform tailored approaches for increasing FVI in various settings.
Community-based conservation efforts are designed to foster local stewardship of important ecological resources. However, inequitable distribution of costs and benefits in communities surrounding protected areas can negatively impact livelihoods, increase wealth disparities and create conflict. To examine the potential for conflict between host communities involved in a community-based conservation program and neighbouring (non-host) communities, we explored local residents’ attitudes towards conservation at Tiwai Island Wildlife Sanctuary (TIWS) in Sierra Leone. Intercept surveys (n = 368) were conducted in 18 villages (eight host, ten non-host) within 8 km of TIWS during 2010. Results revealed significant differences between residents of the host and non-host villages with respect to attitudes towards resource use and overall support for site protection. The most substantial discrepancies centred on perceived benefits associated with TIWS, and these drastically different perspectives generated a high potential for conflict. To minimize conflict and foster broader community support for conservation, managers must carefully consider how benefits associated with protected areas are communicated and distributed across protected area-proximate landscapes.
Issues of social and economic inequality are increasingly becoming areas of study for archaeologists; however, little work has been done on the uniform application of analytical methods. Here we assess the use of the Gini index for determining wealth inequality in eight Prehispanic central Mexican contexts. We analyze house size at the Late Postclassic sites of Capilco (village), Cuexcomate (town), and Yautepec (city), all in the state of Morelos. Agricultural field sizes for two communities described in a Nahuatl-language census immediately after the Spanish conquest are also analyzed. Our final context is the Xolalpan phase apartment compounds at Teotihuacan. Using these case studies we discuss methodological issues concerning the use of Gini indices to infer social inequality with archaeological data. We find that the Gini index, when applied following the proposed methodological standards, serves as a useful tool for the quantification of inequality across multiple archaeological case studies.
Specification of appropriate personal protective equipment for respiratory protection against influenza is somewhat controversial. In a clinical environment, N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are often recommended for respiratory protection against infectious aerosols. This study evaluates the ability of N95 FFRs to capture viable H1N1 influenza aerosols.
Five N95 FFR models were challenged with aerosolized viable H1N1 influenza and inert polystyrene latex particles at continuous flow rates of 85 and 170 liters per minute. Virus was assayed using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to determine the median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). Aerosols were generated using a Collison nebulizer containing H1N1 influenza virus at 1 × 108 TCID50/mL. To determine filtration efficiency, viable sampling was performed upstream and downstream of the FFR.
N95 FFRs filtered 0.8-μm particles of both H1N1 influenza and inert origins with more than 95% efficiency. With the exception of 1 model, no statistically significant difference in filtration performance was observed between influenza and inert particles of similar size. Although statistically significant differences were observed for 2 models when comparing the 2 flow rates, the differences have no significance to protection.
This study empirically demonstrates that a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-approved N95 FFR captures viable H1N1 influenza aerosols as well as or better than its N95 rating, suggesting that a properly fitted FFR reduces inhalation exposure to airborne influenza virus. This study also provides evidence that filtration efficiency is based primarily on particle size rather than the nature of the particle's origin.
Noble liquids, specifically liquid xenon (LXe), liquid argon (LAr) and liquid neon (LNe), are excellent scintillators and, with the exception of LNe, also very good ionizers in response to the passage of radiation, thus providing an excellent alternative to cryogenic detectors (see Chapter 20). The possibility of simultaneously detecting ionization and scintillation signals in LXe and LAr is a unique feature of these liquids compared with other detection media. This capability, together with the promise of scale-up to large mass at a modest cost compared with semiconductors, has contributed to make LXe and LAr popular targets and detectors for rare physics events such as those associated with dark matter, solar neutrinos and neutrinoless double beta decay interactions. In this section, we first describe the ionization and scintillation mechanism in noble liquids, including recent measurements of the relative scintillation efficiency and ionization yield for nuclear recoils, relevant for dark matter searches. We then describe the background rejection capability of noble liquids, based on pulse shape discrimination of the scintillation light and the ratio between ionization and scintillation signals (S2/S1). At the end of the section, we briefly discuss the key requirement for ultra-high purity of noble liquids for dark matter detection.
Physical properties of noble liquids
Table 21.1 summarizes the physical properties of the three noble liquids being used or planned to be used for dark matter direct detection.
The suppressor of sable [su(s)2] restores the function of vermilion (v), purple (pr) and speck (sp) as well as sable (s) in Drosophila melanogaster. In this report various alleles of su(s) are compared for their relative effectiveness on three target mutations, v, pr and sp. Three criteria for suppression of pr and v were employed: visible phenotype, eye pigment levels (drosopterins and xanthommatin) and enzyme levels (sepiapterin synthase and tryptophan oxygenase). For sp only the visible phenotype was examined. By all three criteria pr was found to be more easily suppressed than v; v and sp were comparable. By use of pr with various alleles of su(s) either homozygously or in heterozygous combination with su(s)+, the extent of suppression of pr can be best demonstrated by observing the levels of sepiapterin synthase; normal levels of drosopterins were found in females when sepiapterin synthase was only 20% of normal. On the other hand, the extent of suppression of v is best demonstrated by the amount of xanthommatin eye pigment, because even the suppressed vermilion fly has < 10% of wild-type activity of tryptophan oxygenase when 1-day-old flies are examined; in older flies this enzyme can be as high as 50% of wild type. From these results we also demonstrated that su(s)2, and other alleles, are not recessive but, in heterozygous combination with su(s)+, cause marked suppression of pr and slight, but reproducible, suppression of v. The purple mutation, therefore, is particularly useful for studying the mechanism of suppression as well as for obtaining new mutant alleles of su(s).
Observations on all fronts strongly support the view of a universe composed of >96% invisible matter and energy. The invisible matter is non-baryonic, cold and likely in the form of new particles generically referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), relics from the early universe. One way to detect WIMPs is to measure the nuclear recoils produced in their rare elastic collisions with ordinary matter. The predicted interaction rate ranges from the best sensitivity of existing experiments of ~1 evts/kg/yr to ~1 evts/1000 kg/yr. Efforts are underway worldwide to realize sensitive direct detection experiments, with large target mass and improved background rejection capabilities. In this talk I will review experiments headed in this direction with the use of cryogenic noble liquids, focusing on those experiments which use the common technique of a dual-phase (liquid/gas) time projection chamber to measure simultaneously the ionization and the scintillation signals produced by radiation in a large volume of liquid xenon or liquid argon. These include experiments such as XENON, ZEPLIN, WARP and ArDM.
The influence of action knowledge associated with novel objects was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were trained on complex actions associated with novel objects (“tools”) and had experience manipulating other visually similar novel objects (“shapes”). During scanning, participants viewed, imagined grasping, and imagined using the objects. Based on previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings, our primary goal was to examine frontal and parietal regions subserving action representations associated with visual objects, namely the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the left ventral premotor cortex (VPM) and the presupplementary motor cortex (pre-SMA). We predicted differences between the tool and shape stimuli, modulated also by task demands. In viewing, we found greater effect sizes in the left VPM and IPL for tools versus shapes. In grasping, there was similar activation with both object types. The largest differences existed in using, in which greater effect sizes were found for tools versus shapes in left IPL and pre-SMA, and marginally in the left VPM. We suggest that representations of tools extend beyond classically defined affordances and recruit processing about both graspability and known action plans in tasks involving visual memory, motor imagery, and motor execution. (JINS, 2007, 13, 1009–1020.)
Chemistry occupies a unique place in the university curriculum and is required by a wide variety of other disciplines because of its general utility. Unfortunately, the laboratory portion of the course does not always reflect the diversity and excitement of new research in and interesting applications of chemistry since the laboratory experience is designed to help the student master fundamental concepts. At Armstrong Atlantic State University (AASU) we are attacking this problem with the implementation of two series of nanotechnology based “vertical threads” throughout our chemistry curriculum. The vertical threads begin in the freshman year and provide continuity throughout the rest of the curriculum. Experiments direct the student's attention towards modern applications of chemical technology while providing chemical fundamentals expected in traditional laboratory exercises. By seeing these recurring threads at ever increasing levels of complexity, students build upon knowledge gained about nanotechnology with each additional laboratory course.
The approach used at AASU created two experimental “vertical threads” which are woven into the educational experience from the bottom-up in both the curriculum and the chemical methodology. Experiments performed in the freshman chemistry lab reappear in expanded forms in subsequent years as part of new experiments that mimic the biological, industrial and medical applications of nanotechnology.
We have concentrated our efforts in two areas: magnetite nanoparticles thread, and the chalcogenide nanoparticles thread. Magnetite nanoparticles are prepared by freshmen students while more advanced students modify these nanoparticles for real-world applications. Chalcogenide nanoparticles are synthesized by junior and senior level students and their spectroscopic properties are studied. Senior and undergraduate research students are involved in green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles as well as the use of ZnS, CdS and ceria nanoparticles for photocatalysis applications. The upper division students learn numerous instrumental techniques (i.e. UV-VIS, Fluorescence, FT-IR) within the context of nanotechnology. All students are presented with pre-laboratory and background materials that address the needs for new materials, new techniques for biomedical analysis and drug delivery as well as the environmental impacts of nanotechnology.
Many years ago an unmanageable adolescent by the name of Samuel Clemens took leave of what he described as his “stupid, know-nothin'” father. Several years later, when the famous American humorist had returned home as a young adult after weathering the world on his own for a while, Mark Twain was, again in his own words, “astonished to find out how much the old man had learned in those few years.” Episodes such as this stand not only as amusing testaments to predictable developmental trajectories, but also as subtle reminders that autobiographical memories necessarily follow personal pathways, pathways constituted in the very act of self-construction. Even as we forge notions of our “selves,” we shape and frame the nature of our later recollections. Our identities and memories are two sides of the same coin (Greenwald & Banaji, 1989).
This paper addresses the constructive and reconstructive aspects of autobiographical memory broadly, placing particular emphasis on the interdependence between memory recall and the continuously evolving self. It follows Robinson's (1976) definition of an autobiographical memory as a personal “record of discrete experiences arising from a person's participation in acts or situations which were to some degree localized in time and place” (p. 578). The central features of this definition are shared by other, more recent descriptions, such as Neisser's (1988, p. 361) characterization of autobiographical memory as “the form of memory in which the events of one's life comprise the significant memoria” (cf. Brewer's 1986 definition of personal memory).
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