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Treatment options for Hepatitis C infection have greatly improved with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combinations achieving high cure rates. Nevertheless, the cost of this treatment is still high and access to treatment in many countries has been preferentially reserved for patients with more severe fibrosis (F3 and F4). In this French nationwide study, we investigated the epidemiological characteristics and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in treatment-naive patients with METAVIR fibrosis stages between F0 and F2 in order to identify patient profiles that became eligible for unrestricted treatment in a second period. Between 2015 and 2016 we collected data from nine French university hospitals on a total of 584 HCV positive patients with absent, mild or moderate liver fibrosis. The most represented genotypes were genotype 1b (159/584; 27.2%), followed by genotype 1a (150/584; 25.7%); genotype 3 (87/584: 14.9%); genotype 4 (80/584; 13.7%). Among genotype 4: 4a was predominantly encountered with 22 patients (27.5% of genotype 4). Genotypes 1b and 1a are currently the most frequent virus types present in treatment-naive patients with mild fibrosis in France. They can be readily cured using the available DAA. Nevertheless, non-a/non-d genotype 4 is also frequent in this population and clinical data on the efficacy of DAA on these subtypes is missing. The GEMHEP is the French group for study and evaluation of viral hepatitis on a national scale. Data collection on epidemiological and molecular aspects of viral hepatitis is performed on a regular basis in all main French teaching hospitals and serves as a basis for surveillance of these infections. Analysis and trends are regularly published on behalf of the GEMHEP group. Data collection was performed retrospectively over the 2015–2016 period, covering nine main university hospitals in France. A total of 584 hepatitis C positive patients were included in this study. Genotyping of the circulating viruses showed a high prevalence of genotypes 1b and 1a in our population. The epidemiology of hepatitis C is slowly changing in France, particularly as a consequence of the rise of ‘non-a non-d’ genotype 4 viruses mainly originating from African populations. More data concerning treatment efficacy of these genotypes is needed in order to guide clinical care.
Theoretical work suggests that AGNs play an important role in quenching star formation in massive galaxies. In addition to molecular outflows observed in the local universe, emission from very high-J CO rotational transitions have been a key piece of evidence for AGN directly affecting the molecular gas reservoirs that fuel star formation. However, very few observations exist of CO rotational lines past the peak of the CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) for galaxies in the early universe. Here we present new ALMA observations of high-J CO rotational lines (from CO(5–4) to CO(16–15)) in six z > 2 IR-bright systems, including several sources not known to contain a strong AGN for comparison. We detect significant amounts of high-excitation CO emission that suggests the presence of energy sources beyond UV-heating.
We present ALMA [CII] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum observations of seven z > 6 low-luminosity quasars (M1450 > −25 mag) discovered by our on-going Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam survey. The [CII] line was detected in all targets with luminosities of ∼(2−10) × 108 L⊙, about one order of magnitude smaller than optically luminous quasars. Also found was a wide scatter of FIR continuum luminosity, ranging from LFIR < 1011L⊙ to ∼2 × 1012L⊙. With the [CII]-based dynamical mass, we suggest that a significant fraction of low-luminosity quasars are located on or even below the local Magorrian relation, particularly at the massive end of the galaxy mass distribution. This is a clear contrast to the previous finding that luminous quasars tend to have overmassive black holes relative to the relation. Our result is expected to show a less-biased nature of the early co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies.
Starburst galaxies at z ∼ 2 – 4 are among the most intensely star-forming galaxies in the universe. The way they accrete their gas to form stars at such high rates is still a controversial issue. ALMA has detected the CH+ (J = 1-0) line in emission and/or absorption in all the gravitationally lensed starburst galaxies targeted so far at z ∼ 3. Its unique spectroscopic and chemical properties enable CH+ to highlight the sites of most intense dissipation of mechanical energy. The absorption lines reveal highly turbulent, massive reservoirs of low-density molecular gas. The broad emission lines, arising in myriad UV-irradiated molecular shocks, reveal powerful galactic winds. The CH+ lines therefore probe the fate of prodigious energy releases, due to infall and/or outflows, and primarily stored in turbulence before being radiated by cool molecular gas. The turbulent reservoirs act as mass and energy buffers over the duration of the starburst phase.
We have entered an era where the gas mass estimates of distant galaxies do not rely on a single tracer but rather on an inventory of different and independent methods, much like the case for the determination of the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxies. This is crucial as the traditional Mgas tracers, i.e. low-J CO transition lines and dust continuum emission are becoming highly uncertain as we move to higher redshifts due to metallicity and CMB effects. Here, we present a homogeneous and statistically significant investigation of the use of atomic carbon as an alternative Mgas tracer (Valentino et al.2018) and provide evidence of optically thick far-IR emission in high−z starbursts that point towards higher dust temperatures and lower dust and gas mass estimates than previously inferred (Cortzen et al.2019, submitted). Finally, we present direct observations of the effect of the CMB on the far-IR SEDs of high-z SBs, manifested by unphyscally large (β = 2.5–3.5) apparent spectral indexes in R-J tail (Jin et al. 2019, submitted).
Study of the composition from diverse sources of the Universe helps to us to understand their evolution. Molecular spectroscopy provides detailed information of the observed objects. We present a small study of the starburst NGC 253 with ALMA at 1mm. We detect the prebiotic molecules NH2CHO, and CNCHO. We obtain the integrated intensity maps and abundances of HNCO, CH3OH, H3O+ and CH3C2H. We propose the use of Artificial Intelligence for big data to find prebiotic molecules in galaxies.
A large-scale structure has been recently discovered at z = 1.7, around a powerful FRII radio galaxy. Eight Star Forming Galaxies (SFGs) have been discovered within Δ z ≍ 0.0095 and at < 1 Mpc from the FRII, indicating that this is a signpost of a protocluster. Furthermore, a significant X-ray diffuse emission overlapping the Eastern lobe of the FRII has been detected. Protoclusters are the ideal targets to investigate the complex assembly processes leading to the formation of local galaxy clusters. We will exploit new ALMA CO(2-1) observations (PI: R. Gilli) of the entire region around the FRII galaxy to trace the molecular gas content, in order to discover new protocluster members. Coupling these measurements with the multi-wavelength data coverage available for this field, we aim at placing constrains on the physical conditions in which star formation occurs, and ultimately infer the role of the radio jets in triggering it.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
Observations of star-forming galaxies in the distant Universe have confirmed the importance of massive stars in shaping galaxy emission and evolution. Distant stellar populations are unresolved, and the limited data available must be interpreted in the context of stellar population models. Understanding these populations, and their evolution with age and heavy element content is key to interpreting processes such as supernovae, cosmic reionization and the chemical enrichment of the Universe. With the upcoming launch of JWST and observations of galaxies within a billion years of the Big Bang, the uncertainties in modelling massive stars - particularly their interactions with binary companions - are becoming increasingly important to our interpretation of the high redshift Universe. In turn, observations of distant stellar populations provide ever stronger tests against which to gauge the success of, and flaws in, current massive star models. Here we briefly review the current status binary stellar population synthesis.
Although bats are increasingly recognised as potential reservoir hosts of human zoonotic pathogens, bacteria in bats are still poorly studied. To investigate the DNA faecal prevalence of the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, we sampled 23 lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) maternity colonies located in buildings (churches, barns) in rural villages of eastern France. A total of 552 faecal samples were collected from 278 individuals. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in the faeces of 63 individuals (22.7%). Such high prevalence might suggest persistent infection in bats and/or a frequent consumption of insect preys carrying bacteria. Faecal DNA prevalence varied highly among colonies but was not related to the colony size. Faecal DNA prevalence was the highest in the Jura Department, where the density of ticks is known to be the highest across the study area. Because the sampled bats live in close proximity to humans, we discuss how concerning the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA in bat guano is for humans frequenting places of worship that shelter bats. We also advocate future research to understand what a high faecal DNA prevalence in bat guano really implicates in terms of bacteria transmission.
High-throughput sequencing technologies now allow for rapid cost-effective surveys of multiple pathogens in many host species including rodents, but it is currently unclear if the organ chosen for screening influences the number and identity of bacteria detected. We used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to identify bacterial pathogens in the heart, liver, lungs, kidneys and spleen of 13 water voles (Arvicola terrestris) collected in Franche-Comté, France. We asked if bacterial pathogen assemblages within organs are similar and if all five organs are necessary to detect all of the bacteria present in an individual animal. We identified 24 bacteria representing 17 genera; average bacterial richness for each organ ranged from 1·5 ± 0·4 (mean ± standard error) to 2·5 ± 0·4 bacteria/organ and did not differ significantly between organs. The average bacterial richness when organ assemblages were pooled within animals was 4·7 ± 0·6 bacteria/animal; Operational Taxonomic Unit accumulation analysis indicates that all five organs are required to obtain this. Organ type influences bacterial assemblage composition in a systematic way (PERMANOVA, 999 permutations, pseudo-F4,51 = 1·37, P = 0·001). Our results demonstrate that the number of organs sampled influences the ability to detect bacterial pathogens, which can inform sampling decisions in public health and wildlife ecology.
A current trend in the aeronautic industry is to increase the wing aspect ratio to enhance aerodynamic efficiency by reducing the induced drag and thus reduce fuel consumption. Despite the associated benefits of a large aspect ratio, such as higher lift-to-drag ratios and range, commercial aircraft usually have a relatively low aspect ratio. This is partially explained by the fact that the wing becomes more flexible with increasing aspect ratio and thus more prone to large deflections, which can cause aeroelastic instability problems such as flutter. In this work, an aeroelastic study is conducted on a rectangular wing model of 20 m span and variable chord for a low subsonic speed condition to evaluate the differences between linear and non-linear static aeroelastic responses. Comparisons between linear and non-linear displacements, natural frequencies and flutter boundary are performed. An in-house non-linear aeroelastic framework was employed for this purpose. In this work, the influence of the aspect ratio and geometric non-linearity (highly deformed states) is assessed in terms of aeroelastic performance parameters: flutter speed and divergence speed. A nearly linear correlation of flutter speed difference (relative to linear analysis results) with vertical-tip displacement difference is observed. The flutter and divergence speeds vary substantially as the wing aspect ratio increases, and the divergence speeds always remain above the flutter speed. Furthermore, the flutter mechanism was observed to change as the wing chord is decreased.
Commercial jets usually have relatively low-aspect-ratio wings, in spite of the associated benefits of increasing the wing aspect-ratio, such as higher lift-to-drag ratios and ranges. This is partially explained by the fact that the wing becomes more flexible by increasing the aspect-ratio that results in higher deflections which can cause aeroelastic instability problems such as flutter. An aeroelastic computational framework capable of evaluating the effects of geometric non-linearities on the aeroelastic performance of high-aspect-ratio wings has been developed and validated using numerical and experimental data. In this work, the aeroelastic performance of a base wing model with 20 m span and 1 m chord is analysed and the effect of changing the wing chord or the taper-ratio is determined. The non-linear static aeroelastic equilibrium solutions are compared in terms of drag polar, root bending moment and natural frequencies, and the change in the flutter speed boundary is assessed as a function of aspect-ratio using a time-marching approach.
Echinococcus multilocularis is a cestode that causes human alveolar echinococcosis, a lethal zoonosis of public health concern in central Asia and western China. In the present study, one of 42 Eastern mole voles (Ellobius tancrei) caught in Sary Mogol (Alay valley, southern Kyrgyzstan) presented liver lesions with E. multilocularis from which the EmsB target was amplified. The Asian profile obtained was almost identical to one amplified from domestic dog faeces collected in a nearby village. This observation adds additional information to the potential role of E. tancrei in the transmission of E. multilocularis, and to the known distribution range of E. multilocularis (Asian strain) in central Asia.
We report the first mono-specific facies of Parazoanthus axinellae from the western Portuguese coast. The habitat was recorded using a MiniRov Observer on a large outcrop at ca. 55–60 m in the Luiz Saldanha Marine Park. A method to estimate the maximum uncertainty of the ROV position is illustrated and the occurrence of the facies is discussed.
Ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was recently introduced into the Brazilian Immunization Programme. Secondary data are used as a measurement of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) burden, but their completeness and reliability need to be ascertained. We performed probabilistic linkage between hospital primary data from active prospective population-based surveillance (APS) and hospital secondary data from the Hospital Information System administrative database of the National Unified Health System (SIH-SUS). Children aged 2–23 months hospitalized during January–December 2012 were identified. Incidence rates of hospitalized CAP were estimated. Agreement of case identification was measured by kappa index. A total of 1639 (26%) CAP cases were identified in APS and 1714 (35%) in SIH-SUS. Of these 3353 records, 1127 CAP cases were present in both databases. Kappa on CAP case identification was 0·72 (95% confidence interval 0·69–0·75). CAP hospitalization incidence using administrative (5285/100 000) and hospital (5054/100 000) primary data were similar (P = 0·184). Our findings suggest that administrative databases of hospitalizations are reliable sources to assess PCV10 impact in time-series analyses.
The ferroic phase transition in LaEr(MoO4)3 has been analyzed for the first time. It has been confirmed that this compound undergoes a phase transition from a tetragonal system (paraelectric-paraelastic phase), with space group P-421m [β-Gd2(MoO4)3 averaged phase] to an orthorhombic system (ferroelectric-ferroelastic phase), with space group Pba2 [β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 phase] in a reversible process. This phenomenon, together with the observed demixing at high temperature has been studied using different techniques. LaEr(MoO4)3 samples have been obtained by the conventional solid-state synthesis. The thermal dependence of the crystal structure was studied by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, following a new refining procedure in which the symmetry modes of atomic displacements from the paraelectric-paraelastic structure were analyzed. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements have confirmed the structural results, showing a very smooth phase transition. Finally, calculations within the framework of Density Functional Theory show a behavior of the lattice parameters similar to that observed in our experiments.
Two polymorphs of Holmium molybdate, known as β'-phase and γ-phase, were prepared by solid state reaction with different thermal treatments. These polycrystalline samples have been studied for the first time by X-ray thermodiffractometry from room temperature up to 1300 K. We found that the initial β'-phase undergoes a transition to a β-phase and then to a γ-phase. The γ (hydrated)-phase, turns to the γ (dehydrated)-phase and then to the β-phase. Each sequence involves a reversible and an irreversible phase transition for Ho2(MoO4)3. Both polymorphs have remarkable physical properties like nonlinear optics, ferroelectricity and negative thermal expansion. We have calculated the linear expansion coefficients of both phases. We have obtained a positive coefficient for the β'-phase and a negative one for the γ-phase. Moreover, we have made a comparison of the obtained coefficients with previous results for other rare earth molybdates.