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This study reports on type: variety-mode classification, digital stereomicroscopy, petrography, neutron activation analysis, and previously published reports and characterizes production and distribution of Mars Orange Paste Ware in the Middle Preclassic-period Maya Lowlands. The sample consists of 2028 sherds of Mars Orange Paste Ware from Holtun, Guatemala, and 4105 sherds reported from sites in Central Belize and Peten Guatemala. The combined data suggest Mars Orange Paste Ware was a “short-distance” trade ware produced in the northeastern Maya Lowlands and distributed from Central Belize to the west.
The Glasgow area has a combination of highly variable superficial deposits and a legacy of heavy industry, quarrying and mining. These factors create complex foundation and hydrological conditions, influencing the movement of contaminants through the subsurface and giving rise locally to unstable ground conditions. Digital geological three-dimensional models developed by the British Geological Survey are helping to resolve the complex geology underlying Glasgow, providing a key tool for planning and environmental management. The models, covering an area of 3200km2 to a depth of 1.2km, include glacial and post-glacial deposits and the underlying, faulted Carboniferous igneous and sedimentary rocks. Control data, including 95,000 boreholes, digital mine plans and published geological maps, were used in model development. Digital outputs from the models include maps of depth to key horizons, such as rockhead or depth to mine workings. The models have formed the basis for the development of site-scale high-resolution geological models and provide input data for a wide range of other applications from groundwater modelling to stochastic lithological modelling.
This article explores experiences of relational intimacy (including sexual intimacy) in long-term relationships when one partner has dementia. An emerging body of research focuses on living with dementia, but work on relationships between people with dementia and their family and loved ones tends to focus on understanding the experience of caring, and on constructs like ‘care burden’. Research concerned with the lived experience of relationships themselves is less frequent, and very little published work focuses on experiences of sex and intimacy. This qualitative study explores how six participants experience their intimate relationships with their partners with dementia. Semi-structured interviews provided a rich source of data which were analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Three master themes emerged from our analysis: ‘everydayness’, ‘absent presence’ and ‘I don't know if you want to know this…’. Participants explored how living with dementia constructed specific, everyday relational challenges, and disrupted everyday intimacies. Intimacy, including sexual intimacy, remains an important element of older couple relationships. Relational experiences present specific and difficult to articulate experiences for the partners of people living with dementia – particularly experiences related to sex and sexuality. Representations of older adults (particularly older adults with a long-term illness) as relatively asexual beings can make elements of these relational challenges particularly difficult to express.
To evaluate the impact and burden of the new National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance definition, mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI), in hematology, oncology, and stem cell transplant populations.
Retrospective cohort study.
Two hematology, oncology, and stem cell transplant units at a large academic medical center.
Central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) identified during a 14-month period were reviewed and classified as MBI-LCBI or non-MBI-LCBI (MBI-LCBI criteria not met). During this period, interventions to improve central line maintenance were implemented. Characteristics of patients with MBI-LCBI and non-MBI-LCBI were compared. Total CLABSI, MBI-LCBI, and non-MBI-LCBI rates were compared between baseline and postintervention phases of the study period.
Among 66 total CLABSI cases, 47 (71%) met MBI-LCBI criteria. Patients with MBI-LCBI and non-MBI-LCBI were similar in regard to most clinical and demographic characteristics. Between the baseline and postintervention study periods, the overall CLABSI rate decreased from 3.37 to 3.21 infections per 1,000 line-days (incidence rate ratio, 0.95; 4.7% reduction, P=.84), the MBI-LCBI rate increased from 2.08 to 2.61 infections per 1,000 line-days (incidence rate ratio, 1.25; 25.3% increase, P=.44), and the non-MBI-LCBI rate decreased from 1.29 to 0.60 infections per 1,000 line-days (incidence rate ratio, 0.47; 53.3% reduction, P=.12).
Most CLABSIs identified among hematology, oncology, and stem cell transplant patients met MBI-LCBI criteria, and CLABSI prevention efforts did not reduce these infections. Further review of the MBI-LCBI definition and impact is necessary to direct future definition changes and reporting mandates.
Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study's objectives were to describe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during the pandemic, to compare it with circulating influenza in 2010/2011, and to identify risk factors for severe influenza defined as requiring admission to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Children hospitalized with influenza during the pandemic were older, and more likely to have received antiviral therapy than children hospitalized during the 2010/2011 season. In 2010/2011, only one child admitted to a PICU with underlying medical conditions had been vaccinated. The risk of severe illness in the pandemic was higher in females and those with underlying conditions. In 2010/2011, infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 compared to other influenza viruses was a significant risk factor for severe disease. An incremental relationship was found between the number of underlying conditions and PICU admission. These findings highlight the importance of improving low vaccination uptake and increasing the use of antivirals in vulnerable children.
El propósito de este estudio era identificar los rasgos de la esquizofrenia de primer episodio que predicen el cumplimiento de la medicación antipsicótica en el seguimiento a los 6 meses. Utilizamos instrumentos validados para evaluar las variables clínicas y sociodemográficas en todos los pacientes con esquizofrenia de primer episodio de un área geográfica definida ingresados en un hospital psiquiátrico de Dublín durante un periodo de cuatro años (n = 100). En el seguimiento a los 6 meses (n = 60) evaluamos el cumplimiento de la medicación utilizando la Entrevista de Cumplimiento. Un tercio de los pacientes con esquizofrenia no tomaba la medicación a los seis meses de su primer episodio de enfermedad. Los niveles elevados de síntomas positivos en la linea de base, la falta de conciencia de la enfermedad en la línea de base, el uso inadecuado de alcohol en la línea de base y el uso inadecuado anterior de drogas predicen el incumplimiento. Estos resultados indican que un subgrupo identificable de pacientes con esquizofrenia de primer episodio tiene un riesgo alto de incumplimiento temprano de la medicación. Aunque las puntuaciones altas de síntomas positivos preceden y predicen el incumplimiento en la mayoría de los pacientes, la reducción de la conciencia de la enfermedad es el mejor predictor del incumplimiento en los pacientes que no utilizan inadecuadamente el alcohol u otras drogas.
The aim of this work was to assess whether or not oxidative stress
had developed in a dwarf shrub bilberry
(Vaccinium myrtillus L.) under long-term exposure to enhanced
levels of ultraviolet-B (u.v.-B) radiation. The
bilberry plants were exposed to increased u.v.-B representing a 15% stratospheric
ozone depletion for seven full
growing seasons (1991–1997) at Abisko, Swedish Lapland (68°N).
The oxidative stress was assessed on leaves and
stems by analysing ascorbate and glutathione concentrations, and activities
of the closely related enzymes
ascorbate peroxidase (EC 220.127.116.11) and glutathione reductase (EC 18.104.22.168).
The affects of autumnal leaf
senescence and stem cold hardening on these variables were also considered.
The results showed that the treatment
caused scarcely any response in the studied variables, indicating that
u.v.-B flux representing a 15% ozone
depletion under clear sky conditions is not sufficient to cause oxidative
stress in the bilberry. It is suggested that
no strain was evoked since adaptation was possible under such u.v.-B increases.
The studied variables did,
however, respond significantly to leaf senescence and especially to stem
Embryos taken from late maturation phase seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Seminole prior to seed desiccation (35–45 DAA) can be induced to germinate in the absence of water by exogenous ethylene. NMR imaging of proton relaxation within the embryo shows changes in water status in putative (and not fully differentiated) vascular tissues of the hypocotyl within 3 h of ethylene administration. Difference imaging revealed that the change was progressive in the hypocotyl towards the radicle tip and was accompanied by changes in water status in the cotyledons. Water within plumular leaves was also affected. Increase in diameter of the hypocotyl–radicle axis (as estimated by pixel counts) was detectable from 3 h. Longitudinal radicle growth was detectable by NMR imaging at 18 h. Visible germination under the conditions used was apparent after 20 h. Changes in water status detected by this technique are an indication of changes in activity (concentration) or motion of water molecules or both. The data are consistent with a mode of action of ethylene in stimulating a redistribution of water within embryo structures from cotyledons to axis via the cotyledonary node and allowing the axis access to water sufficient to support germination. This supports the hypothesis that in vivo, quiescence at this developmental stage is induced and maintained by sequestration of water within the cotyledons.
The molecular dynamics of fluids in porous media has been studied using field-cycling NMR relaxometry and NMR field-gradient diffusometry. The frequency dependences of the 1H and 2H spin-lattice relaxation times T1 of various liquids in porous glass reveal weak and strong adsorption behaviour depending on the polarity of the adsorbates. Correlation times eight orders of magnitude longer than in bulk have been observed. The T1 dispersion moreover reflects geometrical details of the matrix in a length scale three orders of magnitude longer than the adsorbate molecules. The mean-square displacements of adsorbate molecules on the surface are only one order of magnitude less than in bulk. The global diffusivity is reduced by tortuosity and porosity effects. The observed phenomena may be explained by bulk-mediated surface diffusion, i.e., Lévy walks. The dynamics of polymer chains much longer than the pore size is characteristicly different from that in bulk melts. There is evidence that the reptation mechanism explains at least a part of the phenomena observed for the porous matrix in contrast to findings with bulk polymer melts.
Stylistic reasons are given for believing that many of the Hadra hydriae found in the Hellenistic cemeteries of Alexandria were made in Crete.
Analyses of the clay compositions of a group of Hadra vases are compared with control samples from Cretan sites and the Nile Valley. The results suggest, together with the stylistic evidence, that Crete is a likely home for the workshops producing Hadra vases.
In BSA 74 (1979) 1–80, an account was given of MM III and LM I buildings and their contents uncovered in 1975 at Knossos during a rescue excavation undertaken by the British School, in the northern half of the Staphylakis field, on the south-east flank of the acropolis (Site Plan, Fig. 1). In that account reference was made (p. 4) to the discovery of other ancient features within the heavily ploughed area. The more important of these finds are briefly described in what follows, to complete the summary publication of the results of the 1975 operation.
Full details of the circumstances in which this investigation was undertaken are given in BSA 74, together with acknowledgements to all those who assisted the authors on the site and in the preparation of the material for publication. A brief account of the whole excavation appeared in AR 1976–77.
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