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Individual abilities to perceive internal and external sensations are defined respectively as interoception and exteroception: the dysregulation of these functions can explain many psychotic symptoms. (Ardizzi et al. 2016)
We evaluated the differences in the interoceptive and exteroceptive perception between 39 patients with psychosis and 250 healthy controls using self-administered questionnaires. The association between interoception and exteroception in the two groups was also tested.
The tests we used are AASP (Adolescent / Adult Sensory Profile) and MAIA (Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness). Differences were measured with t-tests, associations with spearman’s correlation.
Significant differences emerged between the two samples in the AASP total score and in its Low registration (LR) and Sensory Avoiding (SA) sub-scales and in the MAIA total score and in all its sub-scales except “Not Worrying” (Fig.1). Different patterns of associations between AASP and MAIA were observed: psychotic patients showed negative correlations between MAIA and AASP in the LR and Sensation Seeking (SS) sub-scales and in the auditory (AU) and tactile (TO) sensory channels. Healthy controls, positive correlations emerged between MAIA and AASP in the Sensation Seeking (SK) sub-scale and in the “perception of movement” (MO) sub-score (Fig.2)(Fig.3).
Higher scores of psychotic patients in AASP and MAIA reveal both a disregulated sensory related behavior and a hightened awareness towards internal stimuli. The negative correlation between the two scales in psychotic subjects highlights the importance of the interaction between internal and external perception in determining the global subjective experience.
COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and its main symptoms are fever, dry cough and difficulty breathing. It spread to several countries, which led the World Health Organization to decree, on March 11, 2020, a pandemic state that deeply affected Brazil. Due to the impossibility of leaving the house, the routine of children with autism was changed. Children in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have a qualitative deficit in social interaction. Clinical and daily observations reinforce several scientific studies that defend the importance of maintaining a routine as stable as possible for people with ASD, without this stability they may become emotionally disorganized, feel discomfort or even irritability.
Investigate the impact caused by social distancing on the development of children and adolescents with autism.
An online questionnaire based on the DIR/Floortime basic map of emotional functional capacity development was distributed in Brazil from April to May, 2020. The results were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results obtained from 122 questionnaires showed that after 30 days of quarantine 20% of children no longer had the characteristic of being able to remain calm and organized for at least 2 minutes; 11% no longer initiates interactions with their parents; 27% demonstrated more protests and anger than before the social distancing; 18% demonstrated more emotions such as anger, fear and intimacy, 28% began to understand their limits and 12% of the children are using greater facial expression during the social distancing.
This study brings results that can help to understand the processes in a child with autism.
The retention of human milk (HM) fat in nasogastric probes of infusion pumps can be observed during the feed of infants unable to suck at the mother’s breast. The lack of homogenisation of HM could contribute to the fat holding. Therefore, the present study evaluated (i) the influence of homogenisation on milk fat retaining in infant feeding probes and (ii) the in vivo effect of the homogenisation on lipid absorption by Wistar rats. The animals were fed with HM treated following two processing conditions, that is, pasteurised and homogenised–pasteurised. The animals were randomly subdivided into four experimental groups: water-fed (control), pasteurised milk, homogenised–pasteurised milk and pasteurised–skimmed milk. The results of food consumption, mass body gain, corporate metrics and plasma blood levels of total cholesterol did not show any difference (P < 0·05) among the three types of HM used in the experiments. The liver, intestine and intra-abdominal adipose tissue of the four groups of animals presented normal and healthy histology. The composition of fatty acids in the brain tissue of animals fed with homogenised HM increased when compared with the groups fed with non-homogenised HM. These values were 11·08 % higher for arachidonic acids, 6·59 % for DAH and 47·92 % for nervous acids. The ingestion of homogenised HM promoted higher absorption of milk nutrients. Therefore, the addition of the homogenisation stage in HM processing could be an alternative to reduce fat retention in probes and to improve the lipids’ absorption in the body.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
In animal models, exposure to excess testosterone during gestation induces polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like reproductive and metabolic traits in female offspring, suggesting that the hyperandrogenemic intrauterine environment may have a role in the etiology of PCOS. Additionally, few studies have also addressed metabolic and reproductive outcomes in male offspring. In the present study, the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IGTT) was used to assess the insulin–glucose homeostasis at various ages during sexual development in male sheep born to testosterone-treated ewes. To further analyze the programming effect of testosterone on insulin–glucose homeostasis, indexes of insulin sensitivity were assessed in orchidectomized post-pubertal males born to testosterone-treated ewes (Torq-males) and orchidectomized post-puberal controls (Corq-males) before and 48 h after a testosterone injection. There was no difference in insulin sensitivity indexes between males born to testosterone-treated ewes (T-males) and control males born to control ewes (C-males) at 5, 10, 20 and 30 weeks of age, representing the infantile, early and late pre-pubertal, and early post-pubertal stage of sexual development, respectively. In orchidectomized males, basal levels of insulin and glucose were not different between both groups before and after the testosterone injection; however, Torq-males released more insulin before and after T challenge during the first 20 min of the test. Despite this, plasma glucose concentrations were not different in both groups during IVGTT, resulting in an insulin sensitivity index composite similar between groups. We concluded that the effect of prenatal exposure to excess testosterone may reprogram the pancreatic β-cells insulin release in ovine males, with effects more evident in castrated males versus intact males.
This study aimed to examine the effects of re-ensiling time and Lactobacillus buchneri on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages. The experiment was set up as a repeated measure design consisting of four air-exposure periods (EP)(0, 6, 12, and 24 h) microbial additive (A) (L. buchneri; or lack of there), with five replicates. Sugarcane was ground through a stationary forage chopper and ensiled in four plastic drums of 200-L capacity. After 210 days of storage, the drums were opened and half of the silage mass was treated with L. buchneri at the concentration of 105 cfu/g of forage. Subsequently, the silages were divided into stacks. The re-ensiling process was started immediately, at 0, 6, 12 and 24-hour intervals, by transferring the material to PVC mini-silos. Silos were opened after 120 days of re-ensiling. The use of L. buchneri reduced butyrate concentration but did not change ethanol or acetic acid concentrations and aerobic stability. An interaction effect between L. buchneri and re-ensiling time was observed for dry matter (DM) losses and composition. Lactobacillus buchneri is not effective in improving aerobic stability in re-ensiled sugarcane silages. However, less DM is lost in silages treated with L. buchneri and exposed to air for 24 h. Re-ensiling sugar cane in up to 24 h of exposure to air does not change final product quality.
Knowing how energy intake is partitioned between maintenance, growth and egg production (EP) of birds makes it possible to structure models and recommend energy intakes based on differences in the BW, weight gain (WG) and EP on commercial quail farms. This research was a dose-response study to re-evaluate the energy partition for Japanese quails in the EP phase, based on the dilution technique to modify the retained energy (RE) of the birds. A total of 300 VICAMI® Japanese quail, housed in climatic chambers, were used from 16 weeks of age, with averages for BW of 185 g and EP of 78%, for 10 weeks. To modify the RE in the bird’s body, a qualitative dilution of dietary energy was used. Ten treatments (metabolisable energy levels) were distributed in completely randomised units, with six replicates of five quails per experimental unit. Metabolisable energy intake (MEI), egg mass (EM) and RE were expressed in kJ/kg0.67. The utilisation efficiency (kt) was estimated from the relationship between RE and MEI. The metabolisable energy for maintenance was given by RE = 0. The net energy requirement for WG was obtained from the relationship between RE in the BW as a function of the BW. The utilisation efficiency for EP (ko) was obtained from the relationship between EM and RE corrected MEI for maintenance and WG. Based on these efficiencies, the requirements for WG and EM were calculated. The energy intake by Japanese quails was partitioned according to the model: MEI = 569.8 × BW0.67 + 22 × WG + 13 × EM. The current study provides procedures and methods designed for quails as well as a simple and flexible model that can be quickly adopted by technicians and poultry companies.
We evaluated the differences between the supplementation of urea in rumen and/or abomasum on forage digestion, N metabolism and urea kinetics in cattle fed a low-quality tropical forage. Five Nellore heifers were fitted with rumen and abomasum fistulas and assigned to a Latin square design. The treatments were control, continuous infusion of urea in the abomasum (AC), continuous infusion of urea in the rumen, a pulse dose of urea in the rumen every 12 h (PR) and a combination of PR and AC. The control exhibited the lowest (P < 0·10) faecal and urinary N losses, which were, overall, increased by supplementation. The highest urinary N losses (P < 0·10) were observed when urea was either totally or partially supplied as a ruminal pulse dose. The rumen N balance was negative for the control and when urea was totally supplied in the abomasum. The greatest microbial N production (P < 0·10) was obtained when urea was partially or totally supplied in the abomasum. Urea supplementation increased (P < 0·10) the amount of urea recycled to the gastrointestinal tract and the amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle. The greatest (P < 0·10) amounts of urea-N used for anabolism were observed when urea was totally and continuously infused in the abomasum. The continuous abomasal infusion also resulted in the highest (P < 0·10) assimilation of microbial N from recycling. The continuous releasing of urea throughout day either in the rumen or abomasum is able to improve N accretion in the animal body, despite mechanism responsible for that being different.
The rate of passage (ROP) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) influences the exposure time of food to the digestion and absorption processes. Consequently, ROP affects the efficiency of nutrient utilization and energy from the diet. This study aimed to determine the physiological parameters that characterize the digestive response, such as first appearance time (FAT), ROP, mean retention time (MRT) and transit time (TT) in adult Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), and to evaluate the effects of sex, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) content in the diet and different types of markers on these parameters. In the first trial, we investigated the effects of sex and AMEn level (high- and low-energy diet) on the FAT parameter. Thirty-two male and 32 female Japanese quail were randomly allocated to 8 battery cages and assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 4 replicates of 4 birds for each treatment. To determine the FAT, ferric oxide (1%) was added to the diet, and the excreta of the quail was monitored until the first appearance of the marker. The results indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) in the FAT between males (100 min) and females (56 min), regardless of the AMEn content. In the second trial, thirty-two 32-week-old female Japanese quail in the laying phase were assigned to four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, in which the main independent variables were type of marker (Cr or Ti) and AMEn level (high- and low-energy diets). In order to determine ROP (ET1%), MRT and TT (ET100%), the markers (0.5%: Cr2O3 and 0.5%: TiO2) were added to the diets, and the excreta were collected for 750 min. The excretion times for 1% (ET1%), 25% (ET25%), 50% (ET50%), 75% (ET75%) and 100% (ET100%) were estimated using cumulative excretion curves. No effect was detected for the AMEn level (P > 0.05); however, the effect of different marker types was significant (P < 0.05). This difference increased with time and ET100% was estimated to occur at 59 min. The ROP was estimated to be 68 min. The TT was estimated to be 540 min using Cr and 599 min using Ti, with an average MRT value of 0930 h. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that Japanese quail digestion through the GIT can be dynamic and differ based on sex or marker type.
The description of the growth of the Japanese quails is necessary to characterize the genetic potential of these birds raised in different countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the genetic potential of Japanese quails by conducting a meta-analysis considering studies conducted in different countries. Only data about the subspecies Coturnix coturnix japonica were considered; studies regarding Coturnix coturnix coturnix were not examined. The criteria investigated were BW (W), age (t), year of publication and location of the study. Each set of genetic material within a publication was coded as one study. The Gompertz function was used to interpret the growth of laying quails; thus, each study was represented by Gompertz parameters. The W and t data were applied to estimate the values of Gompertz growth parameters, including BW at maturity (Wm), BW at birth (Wi), maturity rate (B) and inflection point (IP). The age at which the maximum growth rate was achieved (t*) was calculated considering the parameters Wm, Wi and B. To estimate these parameters, random regression was used to randomize the parameter Wm. The parameters estimated for each assay were used in exploratory, grouping, and principal component analyses. The values of Wi ranged from 4.1 to 11.6 g. The values of B ranged from 0.0393 to 0.1039/day, and consequently, the values of t* and IP ranged from 14 to 31 days and 9.21 to 31.03 g, respectively. These results show that there is considerable variability in the growth potential of Japanese quails. To better understand this variation, two groups were examined: Brazil and other countries, according to the grouping of Wi, Wm, B and t*; parameter B was the variable that presented the highest specificity, indicating that both groups modified the maturity rate. For the principal component analysis, the year of publication showed a relationship with the growth parameters but only for studies performed in Brazil. For studies carried out in other countries, the changes in growth parameters were not related to the year of publication. In Brazilian studies, there was a decrease in the maturity rate, but the weight at maturity was higher. Therefore, it appears that different strategies of genetic selection were adopted in Brazil compared to other countries.
Each individual in the population has a distinct maximum growth potential, and the growth curve may vary depending on the response to nutrient intake, growth phase and variability among animals. The present study aimed to (1) model weight gain (WG) response to methionine+cystine (Met+Cys) supply using different mathematical functions, (2) identify functions that better fit the growth responses of pullets, (3) determine the Met+Cys requirements that maximize WG based on breeding standards and (4) partition the Met+Cys requirements for WG and maintenance. Three trials were performed using 1448 laying-type pullets. We adopted a completely randomized design with eight treatments and six replicates. The first trial (2 to 6 weeks, P1) used 15 pullets per experimental unit. The second and third trials (8 to 12 weeks, P2; 14 to 18 weeks, P3) were used eight pullets per replicate. The Met+Cys levels were obtained using a dilution technique. The mathematical functions used to describe WG responses to Met+Cys intake were broken line, broken line with curvilinear ascendancy, Michaelis–Menten, saturation kinetics and three logistic and three exponential models. Models were selected using the Bayesian information criterion and evaluated by residual analysis. It was possible to model the responses using the studied functions. The best functions were obtained by logistic and sigmoidal models in P1 and P2, and with the broken line by the curvilinear ascendancy model in P3. The Met+Cys intake that determined the maximum potential for WG (WGmax) in P1, P2 and P3 were 313, 381 and 318 mg/day, respectively. The Met+Cys requirements for WG were 20, 22 and 27 mg/g, and for maintenance were 214, 53 and 30 mg/kgBW0.75 for P1, P2 and P3, respectively.
This study presents two years of characterization of a warm temperate rhodolith bed in order to analyse how certain environmental changes influence the community ecology. The biomass of rhodoliths and associated species were analysed during this period and in situ experiments were conducted to evaluate the primary production, calcification and respiration of the dominant species of rhodoliths and epiphytes. The highest total biomass of rhodoliths occurred during austral winter. Lithothamnion crispatum was the most abundant rhodolith species in austral summer. Epiphytic macroalgae occurred only in January 2015, with Padina gymnospora being the most abundant. Considering associated fauna, the biomass of Mollusca increased from February 2015 to February 2016. Population densities of key reef fish species inside and around the rhodolith beds showed significant variations in time. The densities of grouper (carnivores/piscivores) increased in time, especially from 2015 to 2016. On the other hand, grunts (macroinvertebrate feeders) had a modest decrease over time (from 2014 to 2016). Other parameters such as primary production and calcification of L. crispatum were higher under enhanced irradiance, yet decreased in the presence of P. gymnospora. Community structure and physiological responses can be explained by the interaction of abiotic and biotic factors, which are driven by environmental changes over time. Biomass changes can indicate that herbivores play a role in limiting the growth of epiphytes, and this is beneficial to the rhodoliths because it decreases competition for environmental resources with fleshy algae.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
Chronically stressed adult male Balb C mice were submitted to the tail suspension test. Chronic immobilization stress (6 h/d for 14 consecutive days) induced a significant reduction in immobility time when compared to non-stressed controls. Pretreatment with LY 53857, a serotonin 5HT2 antagonist, and IPS 339, a selective beta-2 adrenoceptor blocker, reversed immobility time to the levels of non-stressed controls. Chronic administration of corticosterone (100 mg/kg for 7 d) did not modify immobility time as compared to saline treated controls. It is suggested that both serotonergic and adrenergic pathways in the brain may participate in the stress-induced changes occurring in the tail suspension test response and that corticosterone does not appear to play a role in this process.
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is constituted by a set of specific metabolic alterations being postulated that the main dysfunction is insulin resistance. Estimates point to higher prevalence of MS in bipolar patients, between 30 to 35%. Cost-effective screening methods, not recurring to blood test, have been researched.
Analyse knowledge and importance given to MS in bipolar patients. Test the viability of MS screening without blood tests.
Observational, cross-sectional study. Random sample of 15 adult bipolar patients, in euthymic phase. Semi-structured interview, YMRS, HAMD were applied. MS diagnosis investigated according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. MS screening was defined positive if blood pressure ≥ 130/85 or anti-hypertensive medication and abdominal perimeter > 90 in males or > 80 in females. A questionnaire about knowledge, attitudes and concerns on MS was applied.
14 patients completed the investigation protocol. Five (36%) met IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome. Screening sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Twelve patients (80%) were overweigh or obese. Mean IMC in patients that met IDF criteria for MS was 30 while in the other group mean IMC was 26. Only 3 (20%) have ever heard about MS, but the majority of the patients were concerned, in decreasing order, about weight gain, blood pressure cholesterol and hyperglycemia control.
Although limited by small sample size, this study strengthens the idea that MS screening can be effective in clinical practice, it also indicates the need to educate BP patients about MS and to prevent overweight.
Studying inpatient clinical population's features allows a better understanding of readmissions. Factors associated with higher levels of readmission may give clues concerning better treatment planning and follow-up.
To detect psychosocial and clinic factors associated with readmissions in an inpatient general psychiatric population.
107 patients consecutively admitted to an inpatient unit were characterized in terms of psychosocial, clinical, treatment and discharge plan features. Readmission was defined as the number of previous admittances in the last two years.
Patients characteristics: Average age 44 (SD: 16); 58% female; 10 (SD:5) years of education; average disease duration of 128 (SD:115) months. Main diagnosis: 30,8% schizophrenia; 14% bipolar I disorder; 13,1% major depression; 11,2% recurrent major depression; 5,6% cluster B personality; 3,8% bipolar II disorder and 2,9% schizoaffective disorder. From more to less frequent diagnosis implicated in readmissions were schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, recurrent major depression, bipolar I, bipolar II and major depression episode. Readmissions were not associated with inpatient treatment or disease duration, nor toxics or axis II diagnosis. Nonetheless, beginning a depot antipsychotic medication was related to an increase in previous admissions.
These are preliminary results of a small sample, but they point towards the usefulness of a systematic evaluation of inpatient populations, mainly in what concerns complex clinical situations like major pathology readmissions.
Existential anxiety (EA) has been described as the anxiety about the meaning of life, death and the necessity to make choices (Tillich, 1953).Although recent research found EA to be associated with trauma and general psychological symptoms in community samples (Weems et al. 2004), to date, no study has investigated its relationship with trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in psychiatric outpatients.
To examine the association between EA and self-reported trauma history and PTSD symptoms in psychiatric outpatients.
Seventy-two stable psychiatric outpatients (mean(SD) age=46.1(14), 55% females) were assessed with the Existential Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ; score ranging 0-39), the Trauma History Questionnaire which reports on criminal experiences, natural disasters, death exposure and questioning about physical and sexual experiences, and the PTSD Checklist (PCL; score ranging 17-85).
Mean(SD) EAQ and PCL scores were 20.0(7.8) and 40.0(15), respectively. A majority of participants (93%) reported at least one lifetime trauma exposure. Results revealed a positive correlation between existential anxiety and lifetime trauma exposure (r=.28, p< .05).Furthermore, in patients with lifetime trauma exposure, increased EA was associated with increased PCL total score (r=.57, p< .001) as well as with all PTSD symptom clusters: re-experiencing (r=0.45, p < 0.001), hyperarousal (r=.51, p< .001) and avoidance (r=.53, p < .01).
Our findings suggest that EA might be an interesting construct to examine further in the assessment and treatment of PTSD and paves the way for empirical investigations of existential therapies.
Nutrient requirements in cattle are dependent on physiological stage, breed and environmental conditions. In Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers, the lack of data remains a limiting factor for estimating energy and protein requirements. Thus, we aimed to estimate the energy and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers raised under tropical conditions. Twenty-two crossbred (½ Holstein × ½ Gyr) heifers with an average initial BW of 102.2 ± 3.4 kg and 3 to 4 months of age were used. To estimate requirements, the comparative slaughter technique was used: four animals were assigned to the reference group, slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to estimate the initial empty BW (EBW) and composition of the animals that remained in the experiment. The remaining animals were randomized into three treatments based on targeted rates of BW gain: high (1.0 kg/day), low (0.5 kg/day) and close to maintenance (0.1 kg/day). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered to determine EBW, empty body gain (EBG) and body energy and protein contents. The linear regression parameters were estimated using PROC MIXED of SAS (version 9.4). Estimates of the parameters of non-linear regressions were adjusted through PROC NLIN of SAS using the Gauss–Newton method for parameter fit. The net requirements of energy for maintenance (NEm) and metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) were 0.303 and 0.469 MJ/EBW0.75 per day, respectively. The efficiency of use of MEm was 64.5%. The estimated equation to predict the net energy requirement for gain (NEg) was: NEg (MJ/day) = 0.299 × EBW0.75 × EBG0.601. The efficiency of use of ME for gain (kg) was 30.7%. The requirement of metabolizable protein for maintenance was 3.52 g/EBW0.75 per day. The equation to predict net protein requirement for gain (NPg) was: NPg (g/day) = 243.65 × EBW−0.091 × EBG. The efficiency of use of metabolizable protein for gain (k) was 50.8%. We observed noteworthy differences when comparing to ME and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers with other systems. In addition, we also observed differences in estimates for NEm, NEg, NPg, kg and k. Therefore, we propose that the equations generated in the present study should be used to estimate energy and protein requirements for Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers raised in tropical conditions in the post-weaning phase up to 185 kg of BW.
Most mental disorders begin during adolescence and early adulthood (18–24-years-old), highlighting the importance of understanding the onset and progression of mental disorders among youths. Although progress has been made, namely by creating youth mental health transition services, gaps continue to exist. Locally, our recently constituted young adults unit aimed to minimize discontinuities in care.
To characterize a population of young adult psychiatric outpatients, regarding socio-demographic and clinic variables.
Socio-demographic and clinic characterization of young adult psychiatric outpatients observed during 1st January 2015–30th July 2016.
Two hundred and fifty-five outpatients were observed: 64.3% females and 35.7% males, average age 20.56-years-old (median 20). Most lived in urban areas (59.4%), with their parents (27.8%), were students (80.4%), attending secondary school (36.1%). A total of, 27.5% were referenced by an emergency department, and adjustment disorders (ICD-10 F43.2) were the most frequent diagnosis (21.6%). Regarding suicidal behaviours and self-harm, 9.8% did self-cutting. A vast majority did not have previous psychiatric hospitalizations–only 5.9% outpatients had at least one. In total, 39.8% were medicated with antidepressants (1/3 of which in association with other drugs), and about 38.8% received cognitive-behavioural interventions. About 2/3 of patients (66.3%) remained in care and only about 1/6 (15.7%) were discharged.
Our typical youth psychiatric outpatient was of female gender, student, living with its parents. Adjustment disorders were the most frequent diagnosis, and antidepressants were the main psychopharmacologic option, often combined with other psychotropic drugs. In the future, psychotherapy interventions should be more widely available, namely group psychotherapy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Psychopathology rating scales have been widely used. Studies evaluating the congruence between self and observer-reported ratings show inconsistent results.
Objectives or aims
Determine whether there was consistency between psychopathology as assessed by patients and clinicians’ assessment in outpatients observed in the Young Adult Unit of our Psychiatry Department (Coimbra Hospital and University Centre-Portugal).
Socio-demographic characterization was undertaken with young adult outpatients observed during nineteen months (1st January 2015–31st July 2016). Brief Symptom Inventory–53 items (BSI-53) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were applied at the first clinical evaluation. Spearman correlation coefficient between General Severity Index (GSI) of BSI-53 and BPRS total score was calculated.
During the mentioned interval 255 outpatients were observed: 64.3% females and 35.7% males; aged between 17 and 39 years old (average: 20.56; median: 20). Fifty percent were diagnosed with neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (ICD-10 F40-48) and 14.1% with mood disorders (ICD-10 F30-39). BPRS and BSI-53 rating scales were administered to 55 patients: 72.5% females and 27.5% males; average age 21.2. A statistical significant correlation was found between BPRS total and GSI score.
Several factors can determine the accuracy of psychopathology self-assessment, including diagnosis and severity of illness. In fact, studies show strong correlation between self and observer assessment of depressive and anxious psychopathology, but no correlation in psychotic psychopathological dimensions. Therefore, the correlation found in this population can be explained by the fact that the majority of patients were diagnosed with neurotic, stress-related and somatoform and mood disorders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.