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Social anxiety disorder (SAD) typically develops during late childhood or early adolescence, and often runs a chronic course if left untreated. Maladaptive processing of social information has been suggested to contribute to the etiology and maintenance of SAD. Scanpaths are a succession of visual fixations and saccades through which individuals extract information during face perception. Atypically long scanpaths have previously been reported in adults with SAD but no studies have been conducted on youth samples. SAD has previously also been linked to atypical arousal during face processing.
This study aimed to investigate differences in visual attention and arousal to emotional faces comparing children and adolescents with SAD to a non-psychiatric population of youths.
In one of the largest eye-tracking studies of pediatric SAD to date, children and adolescents with SAD (n = 62) and healthy controls (n = 39) completed a task where they were meant to recognise different emotional expressions in pictures of faces while their eye movements were recorded. The visual scanpath and the pupil dilation response were examined.
Youth with SAD showed restricted scanpaths, suggesting they scanned a more limited part of the face during face perception. Higher pupil dilation was also observed in the children and adolescents with SAD.
The restricted pattern of scanpath observed in youth with SAD is contrary to findings among adults, but similar to what has been reported in neurodevelopmental disorders associated with social interaction impairments such as autism. Restricted scanpaths may partially contribute to the maintencance of social anxiety disorder.
South Africa (SA) is a developing country with an ageing population. Adequate nutrition and physical activity (PA) protect against the loss of muscle mass and physical function, both of which are important components of sarcopenia. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of sarcopenia in older black SA women and investigate its associations with PA and protein intake.
Materials and Methods
Older black SA women (age, 68 (range; 60–85 years) n = 122) completed sociodemographic questionnaires, 24 h urine collection (estimate protein intake), venous blood (hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and ferritin), functional tests (grip strength, 3 m timed-up-and-go (TUG), 10 m walk test) and PA monitoring (activPAL). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry whole-body scans assessed fat and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM).
According to the European Working group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP)2, 2.5% (n = 3) had confirmed sarcopenia of a low severity based on normal physical function. Of the total cohort, 9% (n = 11) had low grip strength, 22.1% (n = 27) had a low appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI), and no women had low TUG (s) or gait speed (m/s). Higher ASMI was associated with lower hs-CRP (p = 0.05; Rho = -0.209) and higher ferritin (Rho = 0.252; p = 0.019), grip strength (kg, Rho = 0.223; p = 0.015), and gait speed (m/s, Rho = 0.180; p = 0.050). Protein intake suggested intake of 41.8g/day/ or 0.51 g/kg of body mass/day. Higher total protein intake (g/24h), was associated with higher FFSTM (kg) and ASMI (p < 0.001). PA outcomes were not correlated with FFSTM or ASMI (p > 0.05), however, there was a strong positive correlation of TUG (s) and gait speed (m/s) with time spent: 1) stepping per day (min) and; 2) at a high cadence (> 100 steps/min) (all p < 0.01). Daily step count was 7137 ± 3233 (mean ± Standard deviation), with 97.9 ± 38.7 min of total time spent stepping and 12.6 ± 16.8 min spent stepping at a high cadence (> 100 steps/min). Of note, 13.9% (n = 17) of women were completing > 10,000 steps/day.
Based on the EWGSOP2 criteria, there is a low prevalence of sarcopenia in older black SA women, explained by the maintenance of strength and physical function that directly related to PA, especially that performed at higher intensities. In contrast, low muscle mass was relatively prevalent (22.1%) and was associated with low dietary protein and not PA. Notably, it may be important to review the cut-points of EWGSOP2 criteria to be specific to the older SA women from disadvantaged communities.
Osteoporosis was not a public health concern in black South African (SA) women, until recently when it was reported that the prevalence of vertebral fractures was 9.1% in black compared to 5.0% in white SA women. Accordingly, this study aimed to measure bone mineral density (BMD) of older black SA women and to investigate its association with risk factors for osteoporosis, including strength, muscle and fat mass, dietary intake and objectively measured physical activity (PA).
Methods and materials
Older black SA women (age, 68 (range; 60–85 years) n = 122) completed sociodemographic and quantitative food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ), fasting venous blood samples (25-hydroxycholecalciferol: Vitamin D-25), 24 h urine collection (estimate protein intake), grip strength and PA monitoring (activPAL). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the hip (femoral neck and total) and lumbar spine determined BMD and whole-body scans for fat and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM). WHO classifications were used to determine osteopenia (t-score -2.5 to -1), and osteoporosis (t-score < -2.5).
At the lumbar spine 34.4% of the women (n = 42) had osteopenia and 19.7% (n = 24) had osteoporosis. Osteopenia at the left femoral neck was 32% (n = 40) and osteoporosis was 13.1% (n = 16) of participants. The total left hip BMD indicated osteopenia in 27.9% (n = 34) and osteoporosis in 13.1% (n = 16) of participants. Multinomial regression revealed no differences in age (y) or frequency of falls in the past year between all groups (p = 0.727). Compared to those with normal BMD, participants with osteoporosis at the hip neck and lumbar spine were shorter, weighed less and had a lower body mass index (BMI) (all p < 0.05). When adjusted for height, the osteoporotic group (hip neck and lumbar spine) had lower trunk fat (% whole body), FFSTM (kg) and grip strength (kg), compared to those with normal BMD (p < 0.05). Only protein intake (g; 24 h urine analyses) was lower in women with osteoporosis (all sites) compared to those with normal BMD. Fat, carbohydrate and micronutrient intakes (relative to total daily energy intake), and vitamin D concentrations were not associated with BMD (all sites). Number of daily step count and stepping time (min) were inversely associated with BMI (p < 0.05), but not with BMD (all sites; p > 0.05).
A high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was evident at the lumbar spine and hip in older black SA women. This study highlights the importance of strength, body composition, and protein intake in maintaining BMD and preventing the development of osteoporosis in older women.
We demonstrate a resonant Bragg structure formed by quasi-two-dimensional excitons in periodic systems of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) separated by GaN barriers. When the Bragg resonance and exciton–polariton resonance are tuned to each other, the medium exhibits an exciton-mediated resonantly enhanced optical Bragg reflection. The enhancement factor appeared to be largest for the system of 60 QWs. Owing to a high binding energy and oscillator strength of the excitons in InGaN QWs, the resonant enhancement was achieved at room temperature. The samples were grown by the metal–organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on GaN-on-sapphire templates. The most important technological problem of the developed structures is inhomogeneous broadening of the excitonic states due to nonuniform chemical composition of the QWs driven by InN–GaN phase separation trend. We addressed this problem by variation of the vapor pressure, growth rate, growth interactions, and admixing of hydrogen during the MOVPE. The lowest width of 74 meV at room temperature and 41 meV at 77 K was achieved for the excitonic emission line from a single InGaN QW.
Communication and information are cornerstones of management during major incidents and disasters. To support medical command and control, the Web-based support system called Paratus Major Incident can be used. The Paratus Major Incident system can provide management staff with online information from the incident area, and support management and patient handling at both single and mass-casualty incidents. The purpose of the Web-based information technology (IT) system is to ensure communication and information between the medical management at the scene, hospital management, and regional medical command and control (gold level).
In the region of Östergötland, Sweden, Paratus Major Incident system is used in operating topics such as: (1) information dissemination from the incident area; (2) communication between prehospital, regional, and hospital management; (3) continuous updates between the dispatch centre and medical commanders at all levels; (4) digital log-files for medical management and patient records; (4) database used for follow-up studies and quality control.
During 2,161 incidents, 746 “first incident reports” from ambulance on scene were sent to regional medical command and control within 2 minutes. Four hundred and fifty-six “verification reports” were sent within 10 minutes. During 15 incidents, the designated duty officer on regional level confirmed “major incident” directly via the digital system, thereby notifying all arriving ambulance resources and involved medical managements.
This Web-based IT system successfully has been used daily within prehospital management since 2005. The system includes medical command and control at the regional level and all involved hospitals in a major incident.
Wholegrain cereals are reported to promote beneficial health effects. Wholegrain wheat and rye are almost exclusive sources of alkylresorcinols, and intact alkylresorcinols together with their plasma and urinary metabolites, 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA) and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), have been proposed as biomarkers of the intake of these foods in humans. The pharmacokinetics of alkylresorcinols and their metabolites in plasma have been determined but not that of the urinary metabolites. We aimed to characterise the urinary pharmacokinetics of alkylresorcinol metabolites in humans to evaluate their potential as biomarkers of wholegrain wheat and rye. A group of fifteen volunteers followed a low-alkylresorcinol diet for 2 d before ingesting a single dose of rye bread, containing 100 mg alkylresorcinols. Urine was collected between baseline (0 h) and 25 h after administration. Thereafter alkylresorcinol metabolites were quantified by HPLC with coulometric electrode array detection. Maximum excretion rates were observed at 5–6 h for both metabolites, DHPPA being predominant over DHBA and also possessing a greater area under the curve0–25 h. Total urinary recovery between 0 and 25 h yielded 43 % of ingested alkylresorcinols, and at 25 h significant amounts of metabolites were still retained in the body, suggesting that even a spot urine sample may be sufficient to indicate whether or not wholegrain wheat or rye is a daily dietary component. These results support the use of urinary DHPPA and DHBA as biomarkers of wholegrain wheat and rye and enable new potential for studying the association between wholegrain intake and diseases, even in the absence of dietary data.
A spontaneous autosomal mutation in C57BL/Tb mice, provisionally called reduced pigmentation, symbol rp, has pronounced effects on three kidney lysosomal glycosidase activities. Homozygous rprp mice have significantly higher activities of β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase and N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase than their heterozygous litter-mates. Homozygotes have light ears and tails, diluted fur and dark eyes. The mutation is not allelic to any known to affect lysosomal functions, or to a number of pigmentation variants with similar phenotypic effects. The locus is on chromosome 7.
An electrophoretic variation in a mouse serum protein moving closely to the vitamin D binding protein is described. The variation is determined by two codominant alleles at one locus with the allele in DBA causing fast mobility and that in C57BL causing slow mobility. This locus is located in the proximal part of chromosome 9, 14·3 cM from the d locus and 31·9 cM from the Bgs locus. The protein has not yet been identified but possible candidates among the serum proteins are discussed.
We used temperature dependent near-field magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy to study emission properties of blue-green InGaN quantum dot (QD) structures with spatial resolution of ∼ 100 nm. The QD structures grown by MOCVD are 3 nm thick In0.12Ga0.88N layers, confined by GaN and In0.04Ga0.96N and containing a dense array of few nanometer size In-rich areas. The spectral features related to single QDs of the lateral size ∼3 and ∼30 nm and the QD ensemble have been identified. The regions of localization of the shallow and deep QD were spatially resolved in temperature dependent spectra. The spatial delocalization of the emission of the deep QDs at T<90 K have been observed.
To describe the average consumption of carbohydrate-providing food groups among study centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Of the 27 redefined EPIC study centres, 19 contributed subjects of both genders and eight centres female participants only (men, n=13 031; women, n=22924, after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age from the original 36 900 total). Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall methodology using the EPIC-SOFT software. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate were identified, and 16 food groups were examined.
The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher in southern compared with northern centres, while soft drinks consumption was higher in the north. Italian centres had high pasta and rice consumption, but breakfast cereal, potato, and sweet buns, cakes and pies were higher in northern centres. In Sweden, lower bread consumption was balanced with a higher consumption of crispbread, and with sweet buns, cakes and pies. Overall, men consumed higher amounts of vegetables and legumes, bread, soft drinks, potatoes, pasta and rice, breakfast cereal and sugar and jam than women, but fruit consumption appeared more frequent in women.
The study supports the established idea that carbohydrate-rich foods chosen in northern Europe are different from those in the Mediterranean region. When comparing and interpreting diet–disease relationships across populations, researchers need to consider all types of foods.
The aim of this study was to describe the variation of soy product intake in 10 European countries by using a standardised reference dietary method. A subsidiary aim was to characterise the pattern of soy consumption among a sub-group of participants with a habitual health-conscious lifestyle (HHL), i.e. non-meat eaters who are fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans.
A 24-hour dietary recall interview (24-HDR) was conducted among a sample (5–12%) of all cohorts (n = 36 900) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Study participants totalled 35 955 after exclusion of subjects younger than 35 or older than 74 years of age. Soy products were subdivided into seven sub-groups by similarity. Distribution of consumption and crude and adjusted means of intake were computed per soy product group across countries. Intake of soy products was also investigated among participants with an HHL.
In total, 195 men and 486 women reported consuming soy products in the 24-HDR interview. Although soy product intake was generally low across all countries, the highest intake level was observed in the UK, due to over-sampling of a large number of participants with an HHL. The most frequently consumed soy foods were dairy substitutes in the UK and France and beans and sprouts among mid-European countries. For both genders, the sub-group of soy dairy substitutes was consumed in the highest quantities (1.2 g day−1 for men; 1.9 g day−1 for women). Participants with an HHL differed substantially from others with regard to demographic, anthropometric and nutritional factors. They consumed higher quantities of almost all soy product groups.
Consumption of soy products is low in centres in Western Europe. Soy dairy substitutes are most frequently consumed. Participants with an HHL form a distinct sub-group with higher consumptions of fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals and soy products compared with the other participants.