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Cisplatin treatment is associated with neurotoxicity and it is a limitation to effective anti-cancer treatment as it may lead to dose-reduction. Therefore, effective strategies to reduce the severity of neurotoxicity are intensively being searched for. Oxidative stress might play an important role here. Moreover, several antioxidants have been used successfully for prevention. Interestingly, mirtazapine may be one of promising agents for the avoidance of cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity via its less-known antioxidant properties.
We aimed to examine a possible protective effect of mirtazapine against the cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in rat brains.
Eighteen rats were divided into 3 groups equally: A control group (CG), an untreated group (UG), and a treated group (TG). the TG was first given 30 mg/kg mirtazapine by gastric gavage while the others received solely distilled water. and then, 10 mg/kg cisplatin was injected intraperitoneally every day for 14 days to the animals in the UG and the TG while the rest of them were given only isotonic saline solution.
While tGSH and NO mean scores were found to be statistically higher in the TG when compared with the UG, MDA and MPO mean scores were statistically lower in the TG when compared with the UG. Similarly, there was a statistical difference both between the UG and the TG for 8-OH GUA.
These findings suggest that mirtazapine might be a cytoprotective agent and this might justify investigating whether cisplatin at the desired doses can be administered concurrently with mirtazapine in the absence of other considerations.
The past decade has seen a surge of reports and investigations into cases of autoimmune-mediated encephalitis. The increasing recognition of these disorders is especially of relevance to the fields of neurology and psychiatry. Autoimmune encephalitis involves antibodies against synaptic receptors, neuronal cell surface proteins and intracellular targets. These disorders feature prominent symptoms of cognitive impairment and behavioural changes, often associated with the presence of seizures. Early in the clinical course, autoimmune encephalitis may manifest as psychiatric symptoms of psychosis and involve psychiatry as an initial point of contact. Although commonly associated with malignancy, these disorders can present in the absence of an inciting neoplasm. The identification of autoimmune encephalitis is of clinical importance as a large proportion of individuals experience a response to immunotherapy. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge on n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated encephalitis and limbic encephalitis, the latter predominantly involving antibodies against the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor, the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor and leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) protein. In addition, we briefly describe anti-dopamine D2 receptor encephalitis. A summary of the literature will focus on common clinical presentations and course, diagnostic approaches and response to treatment. Since a substantial proportion of patients with autoimmune encephalitis exhibit symptoms of psychosis, the relevance of this disorder to theories of psychosis and schizophrenia will also be discussed.
This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of wideband acoustic absorbance testing in otitis media with effusion.
This prospective study compared middle-ear wideband acoustic absorbance rates in three paediatric patient groups: a healthy group of 34 volunteers; 48 patients diagnosed with otitis media with effusion; and 28 patients with chronic effusion but no sign of effusion during myringotomy. The diagnostic value of absorbance testing was analysed with the receiver operating characteristic test.
The wideband acoustic absorbance rate was significantly lower in the otitis media with effusion group than in both the otitis media and healthy groups at the 0.375–2 kHz averaged mean absorbance (p < 0.017 and p < 0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the highest diagnostic value for the 0.375–2 kHz averaged mean (area under the curve 0.984), followed by those at 1 and 1.5 kHz (area under the curve: 0.973 and 0.967, respectively).
The wideband acoustic absorbance test is more accurate for detecting middle-ear effusion compared with conventional 226-Hz tympanometry. Its practicality and objectivity suggest that the wideband acoustic absorbance test may be a better alternative for diagnosing otitis media with effusion.
The use of endoscopic techniques is becoming more widespread in otological and neuro-otological surgery. One such procedure, endoscopic tympanoplasty, is used in chronic otitis media treatment. This study aimed to analyse the results of endoscopic transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty.
Data of tubotympanic chronic otitis media patients who underwent transcanal endoscopic type I cartilage tympanoplasty between June 2012 and May 2013 were analysed. The main outcome measures were graft success and hearing improvement.
Graft success rates were 94.3 per cent and 92.5 per cent at post-operative months one and six, respectively. Post-operative air–bone gap values were significantly improved over pre-operative values (p < 0.01).
Transcanal endoscopic type I cartilage tympanoplasty is a minimally invasive, effective and reliable surgical treatment option for chronic otitis media.
Although hypertension has been shown to be one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis, data about the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in normotensive offspring with parental history of hypertension are scarce. Accordingly, the current study was designated to evaluate flow-mediated dilatation and aortic stiffness, which are early signs of atherosclerosis in young subjects with parental history of hypertension.
A total of 102 healthy, non-obese subjects in the age group of 18–22 years were included in this study and divided into two groups. The first group included 70 offspring of hypertensive parents and the second group included 70 offspring of normotensive parents as controls. In all subjects, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation of the brachial artery and aortic elastic parameters were investigated using high-resolution Doppler echocardiography.
Offspring of hypertensive parents demonstrated higher values of aortic stiffness (7.1 plus or minus 1.88 and 6.42 plus or minus 1.56, respectively) but lower distensibility (9.47 plus or minus 1.33 and 11.8 plus or minus 3.36 square centimetres per dyne per 106) and flow-mediated dilatation (4.57 plus or minus 1.3 versus 6.34 plus or minus 0.83 percent, p equals 0.0001, respectively) than offspring of hypertensive parents.
We observed blunted endothelium-dependent dilatation and aortic stiffness in offspring of hypertensive parents compared with offspring of hypertensive parents. This is evident in the absence of overt hypertension and other diseases, suggesting that parental history of hypertension is a risk for subclinical atherosclerosis and it may contribute to the progression to hypertension and overt atherosclerosis in later life.
The aetiology of tympanosclerosis is not yet clear. This prospective, controlled, clinical study investigated the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and tympanosclerosis aetiology.
Materials and methods:
The study included 14 patients with tympanosclerosis and 26 with other forms of chronic otitis media. All patients underwent surgery for chronic otitis media. Mucosal biopsies were taken, and examined for H pylori using the Campylobacter-Like Organism (CLO) test.
Tympanoplasty was performed in 29 patients (72.5 per cent), radical mastoidectomy in eight (20 per cent) and myringoplasty in three (7.5 per cent). The presence of H pylori was tested in all tympanosclerosis biopsies, but in only 26.9 per cent of biopsies from other forms of chronic otitis media. A statistically significant difference in H pylori presence was found (p ≤ 0.01).
This study represents a preliminary investigation of the association between H pylori and tympanosclerosis development.
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between pre- and post-operative hearing thresholds, measured by high frequency audiometry, in patients undergoing open heart surgery.
Materials and methods:
Pre- and post-operative audiometric assessments were performed in 20 patients undergoing open heart surgery. Pure tone audiometry testing was performed at 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, 8000, 10 000, 12 000 and 14 000 Hz. We also evaluated: patients' clinical parameters (i.e. age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, history of myocardial infarction, and whether undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery or valve surgery); various operative details (operative temperatures, cardiopulmonary bypass time and cross-clamp time); and post-operative clinical progress and its effect on hearing loss.
Patients' pre- and post-operative pure tone audiometric results were significantly different at some frequencies (p < 0.05). In addition, there was a significant impact of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, history of myocardial infarction and cross-clamp time.
This study shows that open heart surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass can lead to significant post-operative changes in hearing levels at some frequencies. Some additional patient parameters may influence this process. It seems possible that the risk of such hearing loss could be reduced; further studies may be able to define the significance of patients' concomitant disorders.
To draw attention to the possibility of an aberrant internal carotid artery behind an intact tympanic membrane presenting as a middle-ear mass.
A 48-year-old female patient presented with a hearing impairment in her right ear that had started 10 years ago. Otoscopic examination revealed a retro-tympanic mass. A high resolution computed tomography scan of the temporal bone was performed that showed protrusion of the internal carotid artery into the middle ear. Magnetic resonance angiography provided excellent visualisation of the internal carotid artery. Finally, a diagnosis of an aberrant internal carotid artery was made and the patient was evaluated with a conservative approach.
All retro-tympanic masses should ideally be visualised with a computed tomography scan of the temporal bone before any middle-ear surgery, such as tympanotomy and biopsy, and it is essential for every otologist who undertakes myringotomy and middle-ear surgery to know about this rare entity.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of therapeutic intervention in patients with mutational falsetto, by applying perceptual and acoustic analysis before and after voice therapy.
Materials and methods:
Forty-five consecutive patients with mutational falsetto were studied retrospectively. Acoustic analysis (i.e. fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and formants one, two and three) was performed using the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program. Perceptual voice analyses were performed, including graded severity–roughness–breathiness–aesthenicity–strain assessment.
Subjects' fundamental frequency, voice formants one, two and three, jitter, and shimmer were greater before than after treatment. There were statistically significant differences between pre- and post-treatment average values for fundamental frequency, jitter and shimmer. There were also statistically significant differences between pre- and post-treatment average values for formants one and two. These results were maintained after six months of follow up, and there was no significant difference between results at three- and six-month follow up. According to perceptual evaluation, each subject's voice had altered from mutational falsetto to chest voice by completion of the intervention. Thus, all of the patients successfully lowered their modal speaking voice to an appropriate level.
In the light of objective evaluations, and by applying the study treatment protocol, these results suggest that normal voice can be maintained after intervention, at six months' follow up.
We report a patient who developed sudden, bilateral, sensorineural hearing loss during therapeutic use of iloprost for Raynaud's phenomenon. The sudden hearing loss was attributed to iloprost use and completely reversed in eight days with conservative therapy. Iloprost may be a potentially ototoxic drug, causing sudden hearing loss.
To determine the prevalence and type of human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
We analysed the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in archived paraffin block specimens taken from 99 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 1990 and 2005, using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Biopsy specimens from five proven verrucous skin lesions were used as positive controls, and peripheral blood samples from five healthy volunteers were used as negative controls.
Four test samples were found to have inadequate deoxyribonucleic acid purity and were therefore excluded from the study. Human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected in seven of 95 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (7.36 per cent). Human papilloma virus genotyping revealed double human papilloma virus infection in three cases and single human papilloma virus infection in the remaining four cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were 6, 11 and 16 (the latter detected in only one case).
In our series, a very low human papilloma virus prevalence was found among laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were mostly 6 and/or 11, and 16 in only one case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, based on polymerase chain reaction genotyping in a Turkish population.
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