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Mate is a traditional drink obtained from the leaves of yerba mate and rich in a diversity of plant bioactive compounds including polyphenols, particularly chlorogenic acids. Studies, even though limited, suggest that consumption of mate is associated with health effects, including prevention of cardiometabolic disorders. Molecular mechanisms underlying the potential health properties are still largely unknown, especially in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate nutrigenomic effects of mate consumption and identify regulatory networks potentially mediating cardiometabolic health benefits. Healthy middle-aged men at risk for CVD consumed a standardised mate extract or placebo for 4 weeks. Global gene expression, including protein coding and non-coding RNA profiles, was determined using microarrays. Biological function analyses were performed using integrated bioinformatic tools. Comparison of global gene expression profiles showed significant change following mate consumption with 2635 significantly differentially expressed genes, among which six are miRNA and 244 are lncRNA. Functional analyses showed that these genes are involved in regulation of cell interactions and motility, inflammation or cell signalling. Transcription factors, such as MEF2A, MYB or HNF1A, could have their activity modulated by mate consumption either by direct interaction with polyphenol metabolites or by interactions of metabolites with cell signalling proteins, like p38 or ERK1/2, that could modulate transcription factor activity and regulate expression of genes observed. Correlation analysis suggests that expression profile is inversely associated with gene expression profiles of patients with cardiometabolic disorders. Therefore, mate consumption may exert cardiometabolic protective effects by modulating gene expression towards a protective profile.
Food matrix is known to interact with some dietary constituents and microconstituents during digestion. These interactions may potentially affect the metabolism and bioavailability of some compounds, and as a consequence modulate their biological effects. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of apple food matrix on the bioavailability of flavan-3-ols and on the ability of these compounds to modulate the nutrigenomic response to a high fat challenge in minipigs.
Adult male Yucatan minipigs (n = 5) were assigned to a random treatment sequence of high-fat meals non supplemented or supplemented with 250 g of raw apple, 250 g of apple puree or 1.4 g of apple polyphenols extract, with a 7-days washout period between each treatment. Each supplementation provided 155 mg flavan-3-ol monomers. At each treatment period, fasting- and 1h-, 2h-, 3h-postprandial blood samples were collected, and the concentration in flavan-3-ol monomers was measured on hydrolyzed serum, using UPLC-Q-TOF MS. The ability of apple-derived products to modulate the postprandial gene expression profile was assessed and compared in circulating PBMCs collected at 3 h after consumption of the four tested meals using a microarray analysis.
Results show that the apple matrix did not affect the kinetic of the postprandial absorption of flavan-3-ol monomers. The total flavan-3-ols concentrations measured at peak were significantly higher in the extract (x1.75), suggesting an impact of the apple matrix on flavan-3-ols absorption. However, no significant difference in total flavanols was observed between raw apple and apple puree.
Principal Component Analysis of the microarray data from PBMCs identified three distinct clusters of gene expression patterns: one corresponding to gene expression profiles after the high-fat meal, one for meal supplemented with raw apples or apple puree, and a third cluster for meal supplemented with polyphenol extract. A set of 309 genes was identified as differentially expressed by apple-derived products compared to high-fat meal alone, including 93 modulated with the three apple products. The variations in gene expression were similar for only 75% of the 93 genes, suggesting that the apple matrix affects the nutrigenomic response to flavan-3-ols. A bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes affected by apple-derived products are involved in inflammation and leukocyte transendothelial migration, suggesting a beneficial impact of apple-derived products.
In conclusion, these results raise awareness for considering the impact of food matrix on the biological responsiveness of polyphenols in future nutritional studies.
Food phytochemicals are increasingly considered to play a key role in the cardiometabolic health effects of plant foods. However, the heterogeneity in responsiveness to their intake frequently observed in clinical trials can hinder the beneficial effects of these compounds in specific subpopulations. A range of factors, including genetic background, gut microbiota, age, sex and health status, could be involved in these interindividual variations; however, the current knowledge is limited and fragmented. The European network, European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)-POSITIVe, has analysed, in a systematic way, existing knowledge with the aim to better understand the factors responsible for the interindividual variation in response to the consumption of the major families of plant food bioactives, regarding their bioavailability and bioefficacy. If differences in bioavailability, likely reflecting differences in human subjects’ genetics or in gut microbiota composition and functionality, are believed to underpin much of the interindividual variability, the key molecular determinants or microbial species remain to be identified. The systematic analysis of published studies conducted to assess the interindividual variation in biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk suggested some factors (such as adiposity and health status) as involved in between-subject variation. However, the contribution of these factors is not demonstrated consistently across the different compounds and biological outcomes and would deserve further investigations. The findings of the network clearly highlight that the human subjects’ intervention studies published so far are not adequate to investigate the relevant determinants of the absorption/metabolism and biological responsiveness. They also emphasise the need for a new generation of intervention studies designed to capture this interindividual variation.
Flavanones are found specifically and abundantly in citrus fruits. Their beneficial effect on vascular function is well documented. However, little is known about their cellular and molecular mechanisms of action in vascular cells. The goal of the present study was to identify the impact of flavanone metabolites on endothelial cells and decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. We investigated the impact of naringenin and hesperetin metabolites at 0·5, 2 and 10 μm on monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and on gene expression. Except hesperetin-7-glucuronide and naringenin-7-glucuronide (N7G), when present at 2 μm, flavanone metabolites (hesperetin-3′-sulphate, hesperetin-3′-glucuronide and naringenin-4′-glucuronide (N4′G)) significantly attenuated monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-activated HUVEC. Exposure of both monocytes and HUVEC to N4′G and N7G at 2 μm resulted in a higher inhibitory effect on monocyte adhesion. Gene expression analysis, using TaqMan Low-Density Array, revealed that flavanone metabolites modulated the expression of genes involved in atherogenesis, such as those involved in inflammation, cell adhesion and cytoskeletal organisation. In conclusion, physiologically relevant concentrations of flavanone metabolites reduce monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells by affecting the expression of related genes. This provides a potential explanation for the vasculoprotective effects of flavanones.
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