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In May 2021, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) published a risk assessment on lower carbohydrate diets for adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D)(1). The purpose of the report was to review the evidence on ‘low’-carbohydrate diets compared with the current UK government advice on carbohydrate intake for adults with T2D. However, since there is no agreed and widely utilised definition of a ‘low’-carbohydrate diet, comparisons in the report were between lower and higher carbohydrate diets. SACN’s remit is to assess the risks and benefits of nutrients, dietary patterns, food or food components for health by evaluating scientific evidence and to make dietary recommendations for the UK based on its assessment(2). SACN has a public health focus and only considers evidence in healthy populations unless specifically requested to do otherwise. Since the Committee does not usually make recommendations relating to clinical conditions, a joint working group (WG) was established in 2017 to consider this issue. The WG comprised members of SACN and members nominated by Diabetes UK, the British Dietetic Association, Royal College of Physicians and Royal College of General Practitioners. Representatives from NHS England and NHS Health Improvement, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and devolved health departments were also invited to observe the WG. The WG was jointly chaired by SACN and Diabetes UK.
Mailer remained skeptical of many forms of technology; he felt technology to be the enemy of critical thinking, growth, and magic. As this chapter acknowledges, his wariness of various technologies informed works such as Of a Fire on the Moon, in which Mailer eerily predicts some of the very criticisms that have become magnified since the advent of the Internet, fearing that “digital computer was not a machine which would force men to think in new ways about the environment” but was instead “plastic brainpower” that might accelerate “the rush to extermination.”
COVID-19 has had a significant impact on healthcare provision, accessibility and psychiatric presentations. We aim to investigate the impact of the pandemic on psychiatric services and the severity of presentations in Edinburgh, with a particular focus on the North-West Edinburgh Community Mental Health Team (NW CMHT).
Measures of the impact of the pandemic on NW CMHT were identified as referral numbers from primary care and Did Not Attend (DNA) rates. Royal Edinburgh Hospital admissions, detentions under the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 (MHA) and Out of Hours (OOH) contacts were used as proxy measures to explore the severity and urgency of presentations.
Quantitative data focussing on these parameters for patients aged 18–65 years in NW CMHT in 2019 and 2020 were collected from NHS Lothian Analytical Services. OOH data were only available Edinburgh-wide. All data were anonymised in line with NHS Lothian Information Governance Policy.
In order to assess the impact on staff, a questionnaire was created and disseminated, with qualitative data returned anonymously.
Referrals to NW CMHT decreased by 9.3% in 2020 (n = 2164) compared to 2019 (n = 2366). Referrals in April (n = 81) and May (n = 102) 2020 were far below the monthly average across the two years (n = 188).
Appointment numbers were very similar in 2019 (n = 3542) and 2020 (n = 3514). Despite this, DNA and cancellation rates decreased by 3.94% in 2020. Questionnaire results illustrated some of the challenges for staff of working during a pandemic.
Admissions to hospital reduced by 6.8% in 2020 (n = 219 vs n = 235). While MHA detentions in NW Edinburgh increased by only 1.8% (n = 173 vs n = 170), new Compulsory Treatment Orders (CTO) increased by 60%. Furthermore, OOH contacts across Edinburgh increased by 45.2% when compared to 2019.
The COVID-19 pandemic altered the way patients accessed healthcare. Uncertainty of the public in accessing primary care services early in the pandemic may have contributed to reduced referral numbers.
The increase in CTOs is suggestive of severe relapses in previously stable patients or new episodes of illness. The pandemic may have contributed to a reduction in early recognition, and referral, of those with major mental disorders resulting in more protracted or severe illness episodes. The increase in OOH crisis contacts supports such a hypothesis.
Despite what would be expected, DNA and cancellation rates in NW CMHT reduced. The contribution of telemedicine to this warrants further exploration as a means of delivering healthcare in an efficient and accessible way.
The present study investigated nutritional programming in Atlantic salmon to improve utilisation of a vegetable-based diet. At first exogenous feeding, fry were fed either a marine-based diet (Diet Mstimulus, 80% fishmeal (FM)/4% fish oil (FO)) or a vegetable-based diet (Diet Vstimulus, 10% FM/0% FO) for 3 weeks. Subsequently, all fish were then fed under the same conditions with a commercial, marine-based, diet for 15 weeks and thereafter challenged with a second V diet (Diet Vchallenge, 10% FM/0% FO) for 6 weeks. Diploid and triploid siblings were run in parallel to examine ploidy effects. Growth performance, feed intake, nutrient utilisation and intestinal morphology were monitored. Fish initially given Diet Vstimulus (V-fish) showed 24 % higher growth rate and 23 % better feed efficiency compared with M-fish when later challenged with Diet Vchallenge. There was no difference in feed intake between nutritional histories, but increased nutrient retentions highlighted the improved utilisation of a V diet in V-fish. There were generally few significant effects of nutritional history or ploidy on enteritis scores in the distal intestine after the challenge phase as only V-triploids showed a significant increase (P<0·05) in total score. The data highlighted that the positive effects were most likely a result of nutritional programming and the ability to respond better when challenged later in life may be attributed to physiological and/or metabolic changes induced by the stimulus. This novel study showed the potential of nutritional programming to improve the use of plant raw material ingredients in feeds for Atlantic salmon.
The primary extracardiac inferior cavopulmonary connection is an unusual novel palliation for single-ventricle physiology, which we first performed in the setting of unfavourable upper-body systemic venous anatomy for a standard bi-directional Glenn, and in lieu of leaving our patient with shunt-dependent physiology. After an initial 16-month satisfactory follow-up, increasing cyanosis led to the discovery of a veno-venous collateral that was coiled, but, more importantly, to impressive growth of a previously diminutive superior caval vein, which allowed us to perform completion Fontan with a good outcome. Performing the single-ventricle staging in a reverse manner, first from below with a primary inferior cavopulmonary connection, followed by Fontan completion from above with a standard superior caval vein bi-directional Glenn, is also possible when deemed necessary.
The concepts of nature, culture and heritage are deeply entwined; their threads run together in some of our finest museums, in accounts of exploration and discovery, in the work of artists, poets andwriters, and in areas that are cherished and protected because of their landscapes and wildlife. The conservation ethic - placing a value on the natural environment - lies at the heart of the notion of "natural heritage", but we need to question how those values originated, were consolidated and ultimately moulded and changed over time. In a contemporary context the connections between nature andculture have sometimes become lost, fragmented, dislocated or misunderstood; where did "natural heritage" begin and how do we engage with the idea of "nature" today? The essays collected here re-evaluate the role of culture in developing the concept of natural heritage, reflecting on the shifts in its interpretation over the last 300 years.
Contributors: Martin Holdgate, Marie Addyman,E. Charles Nelson, Darrell Smith, Andrew Ramsey, Viktor Kouloumpis, Richard Milner, Gina Douglas, Penny Bradshaw, Arthur MacGregor, Chiara Nepi, Hannah Paddon, Stephen Hewitt, Gordon McGregor Reid, Ghillean T Prance, Peter Davis, Christopher Donaldson, Lucy McRobert, Sophie Darlington, Keith Scholey, Paul A. Roncken, Angus Lunn, Juliet Clutton-Brock, Tim Sands, Robert A. Lambert, James Champion,Erwin van Maanen, Heather Prince, Chris Loynes, Julie Taylor, Sarah Elmeligi, Samantha Finn, Owen Nevin, Jared Bowers, Kate Hennessy, Natasha Lyons, Mike Jeffries.