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Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is among the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections. Persons requiring maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are at increased risk of CDI and associated mortality compared to persons not requiring MHD. Given the clinical impact of CDI among persons requiring MHD, we aimed to quantify the burden of CDI and trends over time in this patient population.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting rates of CDI among persons requiring MHD in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were performed. Searches were conducted on May 17, 2021, and March 4, 2022.
In total, 2,408 titles and abstracts were identified; 240 underwent full text review. Among them, 15 studies provided data on rates of CDI among persons requiring MHD, and 8 of these also provided rates among persons not requiring MHD. The pooled prevalence of CDI among persons requiring MHD was 19.14%, compared to 5.16% among persons not requiring MHD (odds ratio [OR], 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.07–9.16; P = .47). The linear increase in CDI over time was significant, increasing an average of 31.97% annually between 1993 and 2017 (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.1–1.58; P < .01). The linear annual increase was similar among persons requiring and not requiring MHD (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13–1.45; P = .11).
Persons requiring MHD have a 4-fold higher risk of CDI compared to persons not requiring MHD, and rates of CDI are increasing over time in both groups.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs are effective in optimizing antimicrobial prescribing patterns and decreasing the negative outcomes of antimicrobial exposure, including the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms. In dialysis facilities, 30%–35% of antimicrobials are either not indicated or the type of antimicrobial is not optimal. Although antimicrobial stewardship programs are now implemented nationwide in hospital settings, programs specific to the maintenance dialysis facilities have not been developed.
To quantify the effect of an antimicrobial stewardship program in reducing antimicrobial prescribing.
Study design and setting
An interrupted time-series study in 6 outpatient hemodialysis facilities was conducted in which mean monthly antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months during the 12 months prior to the program were compared to those in the 12-month intervention period.
Implementation of the antimicrobial stewardship program was associated with a 6% monthly reduction in antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months during the intervention period (P=.02). The initial mean of 22.6 antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months decreased to a mean of 10.5 antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months at the end of the intervention. There were no significant changes in antimicrobial use by type, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial adjustments were recommended for 30 of 145 antimicrobial courses (20.6%) for which there were sufficient clinical data. The most frequent reasons for adjustment included de-escalation from vancomycin to cefazolin for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections and discontinuation of antimicrobials when criteria for presumed infection were not met.
Within 6 hemodialysis facilities, implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship was associated with a decline in antimicrobial prescribing with no negative effects.
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