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Interventions for reducing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) healthcare-associated disease require outcome assessment; this is typically done by manual chart review to determine infection, which can be labor intensive. The purpose of this study was to validate electronic tools for MRSA healthcare-associated infection (HAI) trending that can replace manual medical record review.
Design and Setting.
This was an observational study comparing manual medical record review with 3 electronic methods: raw culture data from the laboratory information system (LIS) in use by our healthcare organization, LIS data combined with admission-discharge-transfer (ADT) data to determine which cultures were healthcare associated (LIS + ADT), and the CareFusion MedMined Nosocomial Infection Marker (NIM). Each method was used for the same 7-year period from August 2003 through July 2010.
The data set was from a 3-hospital organization covering 342,492 admissions.
Correlation coefficients for raw LIS, LIS + ADT, and NIM were 0.976, 0.957, and 0.953, respectively, when assessed on an annual basis. Quarterly performance for disease trending was also good, with R2 values exceeding 0.7 for all methods.
The electronic tools accurately identified trends in MRSA HAI incidence density when all infections were combined as quarterly or annual data; the performance is excellent when annual assessment is done. These electronic surveillance systems can significantly reduce (93% [in-house-developed program] to more than 99.9999% [commercially available systems]) the personnel resources needed to monitor the impact of a disease control program.
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and detection sensitivity associated with three active surveillance strategies for the identification of patients harboring vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) to determine which is the most medically and economically useful.
Culture for VRE from 200 consecutive stool specimens submitted for Clostridium difficile culture. Following this, risk factors were assessed for patients whose culture yielded VRE, and a cost-effectiveness evaluation was performed using a decision analytic model with a probabilistic analysis.
A 688-bed, tertiary-care facility in Chicago, Illinois, with approximately 39,000 annual admissions, 7,000 newborn deliveries, 56,000 emergency department visits, and 115,000 home care and 265,000 outpatient visits.
All stool specimens submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory for C. difficile culture from hospital inpatients.
From 200 stool samples submitted for C. difficile testing, we identified 5 patients with VRE in non-high-risk areas not screened as part of our routine patient surveillance. Medical record review revealed that all 5 had been hospitalized within the prior 2 years. Three of 5 had a history of renal impairment. The strategy that would involve screening the greatest number of patients (all those with a history of hospital admission in the prior 2 years) resulted in highest screening cost per patient admitted ($2.48), lower per patient admission costs ($480), and the best survival rates.
An expanded VRE surveillance program that encompassed all patients hospitalized within the prior 2 years was a cost-effective screening strategy compared with a more traditional one focused on high-risk units.
Investigate and control an increase in bloodstream infections (BSIs) in an outpatient hemodialysis center.
Patients and Design:
A retrospective cohort study was conducted for patients receiving dialysis at the center from February 2000 to April 2001. A case–control study compared microbiological data for all BSIs that occurred during the study period with those for BSIs that occurred during a baseline period Qanuary 1999 to January 2000). BSI rates before and after a 1-month intervention (May 2001) were assessed. A case was defined as a new BSI during the study period.
The outbreak was polymicrobial, with approximately 30 species. The baseline BSI rate was 0.7 per 100 patient-months. From February 2000 to April 2001, the BSI rate increased to 4.2 per 100 patient-months. Overall, 75% of the BSIs were associated with central venous catheters (CVCs), but CVC use did not fully explain the increase in BSIs. In January 2000, when the center changed ownership, prepackaged CVC dressing kits and biweekly infection control monitoring were discontinued. Beginning in May 2001, staff were educated on CVC care, chlorhexidine replaced povidone-iodine for cutaneous antisepsis, gauze replaced transparent dressings, antimicrobial ointments containing polyethylene glycol at CVC exit sites were discontinued, and patients with CVCs were educated on cutaneous hygiene. After the intervention period, by October 2001, rates decreased to less than 1 BSI per 100 patient-months.
Proper cutaneous antisepsis and access site care is crucial in preventing BSIs in patients receiving hemodialysis. Infection control programs, staff and patient education, and use of optimal antisepsis agents or prepackaged kits are useful toward this end.
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