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This paper studies the synchronization control of the blanket remote maintenance robot (BRMR) of the China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). First, the general state space mathematical model of BRMR was established by using a physical-based method. Second, based on the receding horizon optimization of model predictive control (MPC) and cross-coupling error reduction in cross-coupling control (CCC), the innovative MPC-CCC controller was proposed to realize the single-system and multisystem error convergence and high accuracy transportation of blanket through the high accuracy synchronization control of BRMR. Third, to verify the control effectiveness of the MPC-CCC controller, two types of simulations and experiments were implied compared with the original proportional-integral (PI) controller in Mover. Results showed that simulation and experiments were highly consistent. It is found that the use of an MPC-CCC controller can result in up to a 70% reduction in displacement error and up to a 59% reduction in synchronization error compared to the PI controller. And the accuracy of the MPC-CCC controller satisfies the real requirement of the maintenance process of the blanket. This work provides the theoretical basis and practical experience for the highly stable, safe, and efficient maintenance of blankets in the future.
The concentration of suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) and its carbon isotopic composition (δ13CPOC) were analysed in this study with the aim of exploring the sources and factors influencing levels of POC in the surface water around the Antarctic Peninsula. The scanning electron microscopy results suggest that diatom particles formed the main component of suspended particulate matter, indicating that POC was mainly from in situ primary production. The high concentrations of chlorophyll a and POC in sea water mainly occurred in nearshore and sea-ice edge regions, which might be controlled by nutrient and reactive iron inputs stemming from sea-ice melting. The δ13CPOC in the study area is significantly lower than that in low-latitude waters, with a range of -31.8‰ to -22.8‰ (mean -28.9‰), which was controlled by the high CO2 concentration in the Southern Ocean and might be influenced by phytoplankton growth rates and assemblages. This study helps us to understand material cycling in the Antarctic region under the conditions of global climate change.
To determine the effect of graft choice (allograft, bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, or hamstring autograft) on deep tissue infections following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions.
Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING AND POPULATION
Patients from 6 US health plans who underwent ACL reconstruction from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2008.
We identified ACL reconstructions and potential postoperative infections using claims data. A hierarchical stratified sampling strategy was used to identify patients for medical record review to confirm ACL reconstructions and to determine allograft vs autograft tissue implanted, clinical characteristics, and infection status. We estimated infection rates overall and by graft type. We used logistic regression to assess the association between infections and patients’ demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and choice of graft.
On review of 1,452 medical records, we found 55 deep wound infections. With correction for sampling weights, infection rates varied by graft type: 0.5% (95% CI, 0.3%-0.8%) with allografts, 0.6% (0.1%–1.5%) with bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts, and 2.5% (1.9%–3.1%) with hamstring autograft. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found an increased infection risk with hamstring autografts compared with allografts (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.8–12.8). However, there was no difference in infection risk among bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts vs allografts (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.3–4.8).
The overall risk for deep wound infections following ACL reconstruction is low but it does vary by graft type. Infection risk was highest in hamstring autograft recipients compared with allograft recipients and bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft recipients.
To explore the feasibility of identifying anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft implantations and infections using claims.
Retrospective cohort study.
We identified ACL reconstructions using procedure codes at 6 health plans from 2000 to 2008. We then identified potential infections using claims-based indicators of infection, including diagnoses, procedures, antibiotic dispensings, specialty consultations, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. Patients’ medical records were reviewed to determine graft type, validate infection status, and calculate sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for indicators of ACL allografts and infections.
A total of 11,778 patients with codes for ACL reconstruction were identified. After chart review, PPV for ACL reconstruction was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94%–97%). Of the confirmed ACL reconstructions, 39% (95% CI, 35%–42%) used allograft tissues. The deep infection rate after ACL reconstruction was 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7%–1.4%). The odds ratio of infection for allografts versus autografts was 0.41 (95% CI, 0.19–0.78). Sensitivity of individual claims-based indicators for deep infection after ACL reconstruction ranged from 0% to 75% and PPV from 0% to 100%. Claims-based infection indicators could be combined to enhance sensitivity or PPV but not both.
While claims data accurately identify ACL reconstructions, they poorly distinguish between allografts and autografts and identify infections with variable accuracy. Claims data could be useful to monitor infection trends after ACL reconstruction, with different algorithms optimized for different surveillance goals.
We formulate a method for imposing continuous field boundary conditions on an MD simulation with little or no disturbance to its dynamics. Our approach combines the previously developed thermodynamic field estimator, which extracts macroscopic fields from particle data, with a novel procedure, optimal in the sense of least disturbance, for imposing prescribed continuum field boundary conditions on the atomistic system. By means of feedback control and assuming molecular chaos in fluids, that disturbance can further be eliminated entirely, thus providing an exact solution for general steady-state fluid problems, where the desired fields at the real boundary is achieved by adjusting actions in a region separated from the real boundary by a buffer zone.
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