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Parametric interaction allows both forward and backward energy transfers among the three interacting waves. The back-conversion effect is usually detrimental when unidirectional energy transfer is desired. In this theoretical work, we manifest that the back-conversion effect underpins the direct generation of the picosecond pulse train without the need for a laser resonator. The research scenario is an optical parametric amplification (OPA) that consists of a second-order nonlinear medium, a quasi-continuous pump laser and a sinusoidal amplitude-modulated seed signal. The back-conversion of OPA can transfer the modulation peaks (valleys) of the incident signal into output valleys (peaks), which inherently induces spectral sidebands. The generation of each sideband is naturally accompanied with a phase shift of ±π. In the regime of full-back-conversion, the amount and amplitude of the sidebands reach the maximum simultaneously, and their phase constitutes an arithmetic sequence, leading to the production of a picosecond pulse train. The generated picosecond pulse train can have an ultrahigh repetition rate of 40 GHz or higher, which may facilitate ultrafast applications with ultrahigh speed.
In recent years, the incidence of teratospermia has been increasing, and it has become a very important factor leading to male infertility. The research on the molecular mechanism of teratospermia is also progressing rapidly. This article briefly summarizes the clinical incidence of teratozoospermia, and makes a retrospective summary of related studies reported in recent years. Specifically discussing the relationship between gene status and spermatozoa, the review aims to provide the basis for the genetic diagnosis and gene therapy of teratozoospermia.
In strong-field physics experiments with ultraintense lasers, a single-shot cross-correlator (SSCC) is essential for fast optimization of the pulse contrast and meaningful comparison with theory for each pulse shot. To simultaneously characterize an ultrashort pulse and its long pedestal, the SSCC device must have both a high resolution and a large temporal window. However, the resolution and window in all kinds of single-shot measurement contradict each other in principle. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel SSCC device with two separate measurement channels: channel-1 for the large-window pedestal measurement has a moderate resolution but a large window, while channel-2 for the ultrashort pulse measurement has a small window but a high resolution; this allows the accurate characterization of the pulse contrast in a single shot. A two-channel SSCC device with a 200-fs resolution and 114-ps window has been developed and tested for its application in ultraintense lasers at 800 nm.
Continuous gait phase plays an important role in robotic prosthesis control. In this paper, we have conducted the offline adaptive estimation (at different speeds and on different ramps) of continuous gait phase of robotic transtibial prosthesis based on the adaptive oscillators. We have used the capacitive sensing method to record the deformation of the muscles. Two transtibial amputees joined in this study. Based on the strain signals of the prosthetic foot and the capacitive signals of the residual limb, the maximum and minimum of estimation errors are 0.80 rad and 0.054 rad, respectively, and their corresponding ratios in one gait cycle are 1.27% and 0.86%, respectively. This paper proposes an effective method to estimate the continuous gait phase based on the capacitive signals of the residual muscles, which provides a basis for the continuous control of robotic transtibial prosthesis.
This paper reports a novel fourth-order quasi-elliptic bandpass filter (BPF) based on capacitive-loaded eighth-mode substrate integrated waveguide (CLEMSIW) cavities. The CLEMSIW cavity is constructed by the conventional eighth-mode SIW with two dielectric substrates and three metal layers; a metal via is employed to connect the middle and bottom metal layers. The middle metal layer achieves a large loading capacitance to shift the resonance frequency. The proposed filter is designed in a quadruple scheme, and two controllable finite-transmission zeros can be realized. For the demonstration, a prototype with a center frequency of 1 GHz and a fractional bandwidth of 10% was designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results agree well with simulated ones. The proposed filter has advantages of ultra-compact size, high selectivity, and good stopband performances.
Ship collision risk is an important aspect of ship navigation safety. A systematic method to assess collision risk by monitoring parameter states continually is necessary and has proven effective. Another important factor in risk assessment is ship size, but the effect of the size of ship pairs has not been considered properly in many previous studies. This research utilises a systematic perspective to study collision risk of near-misses in ship-ship encounters. This fills a secondary research gap where previous risk assessments only investigated near-misses from the perspective of a single vessel. Following this proposed approach, ship pair encounter states can be continually tracked. Ultimately, a method of improved Vessel Collision Risk Operator (VCRO) to merge risk assessments of both ships is proposed through integration of near-miss collision risks in a systematic way, which overcomes the disadvantages of prior VCROs that only consider the maximum value, from which it is difficult to track and judge the risk trend. Utilising a case study, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through analysis of ship encounters, with ships of different sizes in the Baltic Sea.
This paper is concerned with numerical solutions of the LDG method for 1D wave equations. Superconvergence and energy conserving properties have been studied. We first study the superconvergence phenomenon for linear problems when alternating fluxes are used. We prove that, under some proper initial discretization, the numerical trace of the LDG approximation at nodes, as well as the cell average, converge with an order 2k+1. In addition, we establish k+2-th order and k+1-th order superconvergence rates for the function value error and the derivative error at Radau points, respectively. As a byproduct, we prove that the LDG solution is superconvergent with an order k+2 towards the Radau projection of the exact solution. Numerical experiments demonstrate that in most cases, our error estimates are optimal, i.e., the error bounds are sharp. In the second part, we propose a fully discrete numerical scheme that conserves the discrete energy. Due to the energy conserving property, after long time integration, our method still stays accurate when applied to nonlinear Klein-Gordon and Sine-Gordon equations.
The object of this paper is to propose a novel method to evaluate the maximum inclusion size in medium strength steel by ultrasonic fatigue testing. The inclusion sizes in the medium strength steel were evaluated by ultrasonic fatigue testing using the fatigue specimen with a large risk volume under water-cooling condition. To ensure fatigue specimens of medium strength steel fracture from the internal inclusion, heat treatment and oxynitrocarburization were conducted to increase the strength of the specimen and to protect the specimen from surface corrosion induced by cooling water. The results show that evaluation of the inclusion size by the proposed method is more accurate than traditional approaches, which are based on inclusion size characterization from arbitrary two dimensional cross sections. Additionally, as the method is based on fatigue testing in the ultrasonic frequency regime, it can be conducted in a reasonable amount of time.
In shipborne Transfer Alignment (TA) applications, partial observability is one of the most important factors limiting convergence velocity. This paper proposes a new method of attributing weak observable states and lever-arm variables to a group of constraints in order to improve the observability of TA model. This yields the so-called Constrained Transfer Alignment (CTA) model which is uniformly observable even under zero-manoeuvre conditions. Within this framework, the Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) and its stability analysis are also addressed. Finally, comparative simulation results are given to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed approach.
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