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Mood disorders require consistent management of symptoms to prevent recurrences of mood episodes. Circadian rhythm (CR) disruption is a key symptom of mood disorders to be proactively managed to prevent mood episode recurrences. This study aims to predict impending mood episodes recurrences using digital phenotypes related to CR obtained from wearable devices and smartphones.
The study is a multicenter, nationwide, prospective, observational study with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder I, and bipolar II disorder. A total of 495 patients were recruited from eight hospitals in South Korea. Patients were followed up for an average of 279.7 days (a total sample of 75 506 days) with wearable devices and smartphones and with clinical interviews conducted every 3 months. Algorithms predicting impending mood episodes were developed with machine learning. Algorithm-predicted mood episodes were then compared to those identified through face-to-face clinical interviews incorporating ecological momentary assessments of daily mood and energy.
Two hundred seventy mood episodes recurred in 135 subjects during the follow-up period. The prediction accuracies for impending major depressive episodes, manic episodes, and hypomanic episodes for the next 3 days were 90.1, 92.6, and 93.0%, with the area under the curve values of 0.937, 0.957, and 0.963, respectively.
We predicted the onset of mood episode recurrences exclusively using digital phenotypes. Specifically, phenotypes indicating CR misalignment contributed the most to the prediction of episodes recurrences. Our findings suggest that monitoring of CR using digital devices can be useful in preventing and treating mood disorders.
Spirituality is what gives people meaning and purpose in life, and it has been recognized as a critical factor in patients’ well-being, particularly at the ends of their lives. Studies have demonstrated relationships between spirituality and patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life and mental health. Although a number of studies have suggested that spiritual belief can be associated with mortality, the results are inconsistent. We aimed to determine whether spirituality was related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea.
For this multicenter study, we recruited adult advanced cancer inpatients who had been admitted to seven palliative care units with estimated survival of <3 months. We measured spirituality at admission using the Korean version of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-sp), which comprises two subscales: meaning/peace and faith. We calculated a Kaplan-Meier curve for spirituality, dichotomized at the predefined cutoffs and medians for the total scale and each of the two subscales, and performed univariate regression with a Cox proportional hazard model.
We enrolled a total of 204 adults (mean age: 64.5 ± 13.0; 48.5% female) in the study. The most common primary cancer diagnoses were lung (21.6%), colorectal (18.6%), and liver/biliary tract (13.0%). Median survival was 19.5 days (95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 23.5, 30.6). Total FACIT-sp score was not related to survival time (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.981, CI95% = 0.957, 1.007), and neither were the scores for its two subscales, meaning/peace (HR = 0.969, CI95% = 0.932, 1.008) and faith (HR = 0.981, CI95% = 0.938, 1.026).
Significance of results
Spirituality was not related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea. Plausible mechanisms merit further investigation.
The development of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from large animal species has become an important model for therapeutic cloning using ESCs derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, poor embryo quality and blastocyst formation have been major limitations for derivation of cloned ESCs (ntESCs). In this study, we have tried to overcome these problems by treating these cells with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and aggregating porcine embryos. First, cloned embryos were treated with Scriptaid to confirm the effect of HDACi on cloned embryo quality. The Scriptaid-treated blastocysts showed significantly higher total cell numbers (29.50 ± 2.10) than non-treated blastocysts (22.29 ± 1.50, P < 0.05). Next, cloned embryo quality and blastocyst formation were analyzed in aggregates. Three zona-free, reconstructed, four-cell-stage SCNT embryos were injected into the empty zona of hatched parthenogenetic (PA) blastocysts. Blastocyst formation and total cell number of cloned blastocysts increased significantly for all aggregates (76.4% and 83.18 ± 8.33) compared with non-aggregates (25.5% and 27.11 ± 1.67, P < 0.05). Finally, aggregated blastocysts were cultured on a feeder layer to examine the efficiency of porcine ES-like cell derivation. Aggregated blastocysts showed a higher primary colony formation rate than non-aggregated cloned blastocysts (17.6 ± 12.3% vs. 2.2 ± 1.35%, respectively, P < 0.05). In addition, derived ES-like cells showed typical characters of ESCs. In conclusion, the aggregation of porcine SCNT embryos at the four-cell stage could be a useful technique for improving the development rate and quality of porcine-cloned blastocysts and the derivation efficiency of porcine ntESCs.
Background: The influences of demographics, culture, language, and environmental changes on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores are considerable.
Methods: Using a sample of 7452 healthy, community-dwelling elderly Koreans, aged 55 to 94 years, who participated in the four ongoing geriatric cohorts in Korea, we investigated demographic influences on MMSE scores and derived normative data for this population. Geropsychiatrists strictly excluded subjects with cognitive disorders according to the protocol of the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) Clinical Assessment Battery (CERAD-K-C).
Results: Education (standardized β = 0.463), age (standardized β = −0.303), and gender (standardized β = −0.057) had significant effects on MMSE scores (p < 0.001). The score of MMSE increase 0.379 point per 1-year education, decrease 0.188 per 1-year older, and decrease 0.491 in women compared to men. Education explained 30.4% of the scores’ total variance, which was much larger than the variances explained by age (8.4%) or gender (0.3%). Accordingly, we present normative data for the MMSE stratified by education (0, 1–3, 4–6, 7–9, 10–12, and ≥ 13 years), age (60–69, 70–79, and 80–89 years), and gender.
Conclusions: We provide contemporary education-, age-, and gender-stratified norms for the MMSE, derived from a large, community-dwelling elderly Korean population sample, which could be useful in evaluating individual MMSE scores.
This paper provides an overview of the development and application of the National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program (NAEMP) in Korea, which uses biological and habitat–riparian criteria for river/stream and watershed management. Development of NAEMP began in 2003, with recognition by the Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the limitations of applying chemical parameters (e.g., biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)) as the principal targets of water environment management. Ecosystem health criteria under NAEMP were developed from 2003 to 2006. Candidate sites for monitoring were also screened and established across the country. NAEMP was implemented in 2007, and since then a standard protocol of nationwide monitoring based on multi-criteria has been implemented to assess the ecological condition of rivers and streams. The monitoring results indicate that many Korean rivers and streams are severely degraded, with biological conditions that are much worse than their water chemistry suggests. In 2009, 24% of rivers and streams were in classes C (Fair) and D (Poor) for BOD, but more than 71, 53, and 27% were categorized as Fair to Poor according to fish, diatom, and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, respectively. NAEMP is promising in that the results have already had great impacts on policy making and scientific research relevant to lotic water environment and watershed management in Korea. In the future, NAEMP results will be used to develop more aggressive regulations for the preservation and restoration of rivers/streams, riparian buffer areas and watersheds. Another future aim of the NAEMP is to develop aquatic ecological modeling based on the monitoring results.
The effects of the Zr/Ti ratio on the electrical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films prepared by the aerosol deposition (AD) process were investigated to optimize the electrical properties of the thick film. The Zr/Ti ratio was varied among 45/55, 52/48, and 60/40, and the post-annealing temperature was varied from 500 to 900 °C. Microscopic examination of the as-deposited films revealed crack-free and dense microstructures with a thickness of 10 μm. The annealed films showed markedly improved electrical properties in comparison with the as-deposited films with increasing post-annealing temperature. With increasing Zr/Ti ratio, the remnant polarization and coercive field decreased. The dielectric constant and piezoelectric coefficient, d33, were highest for the PZT 52/48 film. This film annealed at 900 °C exhibited the best overall combination of electrical properties, with a dielectric constant, remnant polarization, and piezoelectric coefficient of 1320, 31.1 μC/cm2, and 150 pC/N, respectively.
A top gate pentacene TFT employing vapor deposited polyimide as a gate dielectric was fabricated. Polyimide was co-evaporated from 6FDA and ODA monomers and annealed at 150 °C in vacuum. The degree of imidization was verified by FT-IR. A breakdown voltage of 0.9 MV/cm of polyimide film was measured by MIM structure. A top gate pentacene TFT with W/L=25 has 0.01 cm2/Vs as a mobility, about 103 as an on-off ratio (In/off), −7.5V as a threshold voltage and 9 V per decade as a sub-threshold slope.
Pt thin films of various thicknesses (30 nm ∼ 200 nm) were deposited on Si wafers with SiO2, Ti, TiO2, or IrO2 buffer layers at various temperatures (room temperature ∼200 °C) by a direct current magnetron sputtering process. The Pt films showed a strong (111)-preferred texture irrespective of the thickness, under-layer, and growth temperature. The authors previously reported [J-E. Lim, D-Y. Park, J.K. Jeong, G. Darlinski, H.J. Kim, and C.S. Hwang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3224 (2002)] that the films were composed of three kinds of grains with slightly different (111) lattice parameters (bulklike, 1.0% and 2.1% larger). This study details the microstructural variations of the Pt films according to the variations of experimental parameters. The different deposition conditions produced slightly different crystalline structures, but the three different (111) lattice parameters were always found. Epitaxial (200) Pt films on a (200) MgO substrate and a highly (111) textured Au thin film on a SiO2/Si did not show the same splitting in the lattice parameter. The grains with 1.0% and 2.1% larger (111) lattice parameter almost disappeared after postannealing at 1000 °C. However, surface chemical binding of the Pt film before and after annealing was unchanged. Therefore, it is believed that the lattice parameter splitting in the (111) textured Pt film originated from the interfacial grains with the distorted crystal structure due probably to growth stress.
Bilayer structures consisting of ZrO2-3mol% Y2O3(TZ-3Y) and zirconia-alumina composites as inner (substrate) and outer (coating) layers, respectively, are fabricated using gel-casting for the inner layer and dip-coating for the outer layer in aqueous system. The relatively tough TZ-3Y is used as the inner layer for damage absorption due to its mechanical properties. The mixture ratio of alumina/zirconia slips for dip-coating is 1:9, 2:8, and 3:7 as mole ratio. The processing additives for gel casting, such as dispersant, monomer, dimer, and initiator, are adjusted and optimized by measuring viscosity. From which the solid loading of starting material (TZ-3Y) is determined. The optimum amount of dispersant (D-3019; anionic dispersant agent) for TZ-3Y is 0.7 wt%. The slip pH affects the electric double layer in sols, which causes the different rheological behaviors and solid loadings. The castable solid loading of TZ-3Y is 37 vol%, showing a pseudoplastic rheological behavior. The effect of slip type (different mixture ratio) on sintered body is investigated through hardness (Vickers indentation), microstructure (SEM), and strength (4-point bending tests). Strength of sintered bodies after dip-coating into the slips is higher than that before dip-coating, but hardness is not much different among cases. The effects of thickness in the outer layer on damage resistance and mechanical properties of the bilayer structures are discussed extensively.
Static thermal fatigue tests for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were conducted to observe effects of temperature and holding time on its mechanical properties, hardness and modulus, and damage durability. For which three TBCs samples with different thickness in bonding layer (0.08, 0.14, and 0.28 mm) were prepared using an air plasma spraying (APS) method. Temperature of 950 and 1100°C and holding time of 10 and 100 hr were selected for the thermal fatigue tests. The TBCs with thin bonding layer (0.08 mm) maintain sound condition for all the thermal fatigue tests, even showing an evidence of cracking at the interface between coating and bonding layers. However, the TBCs with intermediate (0.14 mm) and thick (0.28 mm) bonding layers show delamination at interface and fracture of coating layer after the thermal fatigue tests at 1100°C for 100 hr. Thermal growth oxide (TGO) layer is created at the interface between coating and bonding layers in all the TBCs after the thermal fatigue tests, and the TGO layer thickness is mainly affected by temperature. Modulus and hardness of coating layer are increased with an increase of temperature in the thermal fatigue tests, due to the re-sintering of coating layer during the thermal fatigue tests. Effects of bonding layer thickness and thermal fatigue condition on mechanical properties, residual stresses, damage durability of the TBCs are discussed extensively.
Porcelain (veneer layer)/alumina (core layer) is a typical dental crown structure. Due to its high incidence of failure, a new porcelain/mullite (buffer layer)/alumina trilayer structure is designed, fabricated, and evaluated. Alumina green bodies were prepared by gel-casting process, and then calcined at 900 and 1100°C to infiltrate mullite precursor slurry of silica-rich (Al2O3·2SiO2) composition into the bodies. Porosity in the bodies is not dependent on calcination temperature, resulting in a similar infiltration depth. Porcelain was coated on the alumina sintered at 1600°C with and without mullite buffer layer. There are no delamination or cracks observed after firing the layered materials. Rod type microstructure and continuous composition are indicated at the interface in the case of the layered structure with mullite buffer layer. To investigate the cracking resistance behavior for this new structure, Vickers indentation and Hertzian contact fatigue tests were conducted. Cracks do not penetrate the interface with mullite buffer layer into the porcelain, showing a reversal case for the layered structure without mullite buffer layer. The layered structure with mullite buffer layer shows higher critical load for fracture than that without mullite buffer layer. Fracture mode of the layered structures in cyclic fatigue shows a top layer (porcelain) fracture at relatively low load (P = 250 N) and higher cycles (n = 106), and a bottom layer (alumina) fracture at higher load (P = 300 N) and relatively low cycles (n = 105).
The effects of IrO2/Pt layered hybrid bottom and/or top electrode structures on the leakage current density versus voltage (J–V), polarization versus voltage (P–V), ferroelectric imprint, and fatigue properties of chemical-solution-derived Pb(ZrxTi1−x)O3 (PZT, Zr/Ti = 35/65) thin films were investigated. The best P–V and J–V performances were obtained from a capacitor with nonhybrid electrodes (Pt/PZT/Pt capacitor). However, the poor fatigue performance of the capacitor required the adoption of hybrid electrode structures. A thin IrO2 layer, as thin as 6 nm, which was inserted between top Pt electrode and PZT layer was sufficient for improving the fatigue performance without any degradation of the other ferroelectric properties. However, the same layer adopted on the bottom Pt electrode was not effective in improving the fatigue performance with degradation in P–V and J–V properties. This was ascribed to IrO2 layer dissolution into the PZT layer during the crystallization annealing of the PZT thin film. A thicker IrO2 layer resulted in more serious degradation.
(200)-oriented Pt thin films were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by dc magnetron sputtering using Ar/O2 gas mixtures. Oxygen incorporation into Pt films changed deposition rate, resistivity, stress, and preferred orientation of the films. Increase in film resistivity and decrease in tensile stress were presumed to be the results of the incorporated oxygen into grain boundaries, while the change of preferred orientation resulted from the oxygen incorporation into the Pt lattice. The preferential growth of (200) planes with less total strain energy from the incorporated oxygen resulted in strong (200) preferred orientation in Pt films.
Highly (200)-oriented Pt films on SiO2/Si substrates were successfully prepared by a combination of a dc magnetron sputtering using Ar/O2 gas mixtures and subsequent controlled annealing. The intensity ratio of (200) to (111) planes (I200/I111) was over 200. The (200)-oriented Pt microcrystallites were less susceptible to amorphization due to their lower strain energy with oxygen incorporation than (111)-oriented ones. The controlled grain growth from the selected (200)-oriented seed microcrystallites during subsequent annealing provided a kinetic pathway where grain growth of the seed microcrystallites was predominant, while suppressing the nucleation of surface energy-driven, (111)-oriented seed microcrystallites and subsequent (111) preferred orientation.
This study investigated the low temperature growth of GaN on a nucleation layer in a remote plasma enhanced-ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (RPE-UHVCVD) system which is equipped with an rf plasma cell for a nitrogen source. It was found that the growth temperature and the film thickness of the nucleation layer and the nitrogen flow rate for GaN growth play important roles in the improvement of crystallinity of the GaN layer. The nitridation of sapphire was also found to enhance the formation of facet shaped nuclei on the nucleation layer. As the temperature of the nucleation layer increased, islands with hexagonal and other facet shapes were formed on the grown GaN surface. This facet formation was related with the surface morphology and crystallinity of GaN. The best crystallinity was measured in a GaN layer with hexagonal facets on the surface and such GaN layers could be grown on a nucleation layer grown at 375 °C. Nitridation of sapphire and the growth temperature of the nucleation layer were also found to change the island shapes which enhances the formation of columnar structures in the GaN layer, resulting in the growth of a high crystalline GaN layer at low temperature.
In this study, defect-free Pt films with good adhesion were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by a two-step magnetron sputtering. This method consists of the first sputtering step using Ar/O2 gas mixture and the second step using Ar. After two-step deposition, an annealing process was followed at 600-1,000 °C in ambient atmosphere. In the first step, oxygen containing Pt films were deposited. Oxygen incorporated in the Pt films completely diffused out during the high temperature annealing. After the annealing process, the film became dense without catastrophic failures such as hillock, pinhole or buckling. Adhesion strength of films produced by this process was good enough to pass a tape test. It is believed that the good adhesion and the observed microstructural evolution are related to the oxygen in Pt films introduced during the first sputtering step. Adhesion, microstructural evolution and the role of oxygen in Pt films are briefly discussed.
Pt thin films were deposited by a DC magnetron sputtering with Ar/O2 gas mixtures. Due to the oxygen incorporation into the Pt films, deposition rate and resistivity of as-deposited Pt thin films increased with oxygen fraction in the sputtering gas. No peaks from crystalline Pt oxides were observed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and excessive oxygen incorporation into Pt lead to an amorphous Pt oxide formation. More oxygen could be incorporated in the Pt thin films deposited at lower temperatures and at higher total pressures. Incorporated oxygen was completely removed after an annealing at 800 °C for an hour in air ambient, as the resistivity of the Pt thin films recovered their bulk resistivity values. Tensile stress of the Pt films decreased with oxygen incorporation, and approached a saturation level at high resistivity of the films, presumably due to the formation of amorphous Pt oxides.
Platinum(Pt) films were sputter-deposited on Si02/Si substrates under the mixed gas atmosphere of Ar and O2. Under certain deposition conditions, the films were oriented such that the (100) direction is normal to the substrate surface. The formation of the (100) texture was affected by the gas pressure and film thickness. After annealing at 650 °C for 1 hour, (100) oriented Pt films with the resistivity of pure Pt were obtained. The annealed Pt films all passed a tape adhesion test and had no defects such as hillocks or pinholes. The experimental results from this work are presented.
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