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Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to depressive disorder, and adolescents with both present poor outcomes. However, evidence for the safety of concomitantly using a methylphenidate (MPH) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) among adolescent ADHD patients is limited, a literature gap aimed to address through this investigation.
We conducted a new-user cohort study using a nationwide claims database in South Korea. We identified a study population as adolescents who were diagnosed both ADHD and depressive disorder. MPH-only users were compared with patients who prescribed both a SSRI and a MPH. Fluoxetine and escitalopram users were also compared to find a preferable treatment option. Thirteen outcomes including neuropsychiatric, gastrointestinal, and other events were assessed, taking respiratory tract infection as a negative control outcome. We matched the study groups using a propensity score and used the Cox proportional hazard model to calculate the hazard ratio. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted in various epidemiologic settings.
The risks of all the outcomes between the MPH-only and SSRI groups were not significantly different. Regarding SSRI ingredients, the risk of tic disorder was significantly lower in the fluoxetine group than the escitalopram group [HR 0.43 (0.25–0.71)]. However, there was no significant difference in other outcomes between the fluoxetine and escitalopram groups.
The concomitant use of MPHs and SSRIs showed generally safe profiles in adolescent ADHD patients with depression. Most of the differences between fluoxetine and escitalopram, except those concerning tic disorder, were not significant.
The risk of environmental contamination by severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is unclear. We evaluated the extent of environmental contamination in the ICU and correlated this with patient and disease factors, including the impact of different ventilatory modalities.
In this observational study, surface environmental samples collected from ICU patient rooms and common areas were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Select samples from the common area were tested by cell culture. Clinical data were collected and correlated to the presence of environmental contamination. Results were compared to historical data from a previous study in general wards.
In total, 200 samples from 20 patient rooms and 75 samples from common areas and the staff pantry were tested. The results showed that 14 rooms had at least 1 site contaminated, with an overall contamination rate of 14% (28 of 200 samples). Environmental contamination was not associated with day of illness, ventilatory mode, aerosol-generating procedures, or viral load. The frequency of environmental contamination was lower in the ICU than in general ward rooms. Eight samples from the common area were positive, though all were negative on cell culture.
Environmental contamination in the ICU was lower than in the general wards. The use of mechanical ventilation or high-flow nasal oxygen was not associated with greater surface contamination, supporting their use and safety from an infection control perspective. Transmission risk via environmental surfaces in the ICUs is likely to be low. Nonetheless, infection control practices should be strictly reinforced, and transmission risk via droplet or airborne spread remains.
This study evaluated the impacts of earlier traumatic events on the mental health of older adults, in terms of mental disorders and mental well-being, according to sociodemographic variables, trauma-related characteristics, and personality traits in a nationally representative sample of older Koreans.
A total of 1,621 subjects aged 60 to 74 years from a Korean national epidemiological survey of mental disorders responded face-to-face interviews. The Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to investigate lifetime trauma exposure (LTE) and psychiatric diagnoses. The EuroQol health classification system and life satisfaction scale were used to assess quality of life (QoL), and the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10) to measure personality traits.
Five-hundred and seventy-seven subjects (35.6%) reported a history of LTE (mean age at trauma, 30.8 years old). Current mental disorders were more prevalent in elderly people with LTE, while better current QoL was more frequent in those without LTE. Among older people with LTE, lower extraversion and higher neuroticism increased the risk of current mood or anxiety disorders, whereas higher extraversion increased the probability of experiencing mental well-being after adjusting for sociodemographic and trauma-related variables.
Personality traits, especially extraversion, and neuroticism, may be useful for predicting the mental health outcomes of LTE in older adults. Further longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between traumatic events and mental health outcomes are needed.
Market demand for touch panel/lens has been exceptionally high for the recent years due to smartphones, tablet PCs, etc. Among the available technologies to envision touch functionality, capacitive touch screen has received the great attention due to the various superiorities over the competing ones. Capacitive touch screen features two transparent conductive electrodes, such as ITO (indium tin oxide). However, the difference in refractive indices of ITO, substrate, and air, ITO pattern is clearly visible if there is no proper countermeasure. Most of touch screen makers and ITO substrate supplier utilize “index-matching technology” to prevent this phenomenon.
Even though of the attempts to minimize visible ITO pattern in final product, there are many technical and process challenges. In this study, the causes around visible ITO pattern were investigated to understand and provide the proper countermeasures.
One of the possible causes for visible ITO pattern was improper annealing process in ITO especially for film substrate. According to XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)/ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) and other analysis results, ITO, which is normally deposited through sputtering, is not fully transformed to oxidized state. After aligning and adjusting annealing condition, acknowledged visible ITO pattern was disappeared.
Other causes for visible patterns were also discussed in detail, and the relevant countermeasures were provided.
The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains causing bloodstream infection (BSI) has not been studied in Korea.
We sought to determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA strains among isolates recovered from patients with MRSA BSIs and to explore epidemiological changes in Korea. We also sought to evaluate clinical characteristics relevant to the development of healthcare-associated BSIs.
We prospectively collected consecutive MRSA isolates from patients with BSI at 4 hospitals from July 1 through November 30, 2007, and we also included MRSA isolates recovered from culture of blood samples collected during a previous year (October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005) at a different hospital. Molecular typing studies were performed, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with healthcare-associated BSI due to CA-MRSA strains with those of patients with healthcare-associated BSI due to healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains.
There were 76 cases of MRSA BSI, of which 4 (5.3%) were community-associated and 72 (94.7%) were healthcare-associated. Among the 72 HA-MRSA BSIs, 18 (25%) were community onset, and 54 (75%) were hospital onset. PFGE type D-ST72–spa B-SCCmec type IVA MRSA, the predominant genotype of CA-MRSA in Korea, accounted for 19 (25%) of all 76 MRSA BSIs, including 17 (23.6%) of 72 HA-MRSA BSIs and 11 (20.8%) of 53 hospital-onset HA-MRSA BSIs. Patients with healthcare-associated BSIs due to CA-MRSA strains carrying SCCmec type IVA tended to have fewer healthcare-associated risk factors, compared with patients with healthcare-associated BSIs due to HA-MRSA strains carrying other SCCmec types. The presence of a central venous catheter or other invasive device was the only independent factor differentiating patients infected with hospital-associated genotype strains from patients infected with other strains. Clinical outcomes were similar between both groups.
CA-MRSA strains are emerging as a major cause of BSI in healthcare settings in Korea. This changing epidemiology of MRSA poses a challenge to public health and infection control in hospital settings.
A gold and aluminum layer was investigated as an anode for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). By pretreating the ultrathin aluminum layer in an oxygen (O2) plasma, the hole injection from the metal anode to the organic layer was greatly enhanced. The fabricated OLEDs demonstrated improved current density and luminance characteristics as compared with other devices using a gold anode and an aluminum layer not treated with an oxygen plasma.
Pt thin films of various thicknesses (30 nm ∼ 200 nm) were deposited on Si wafers with SiO2, Ti, TiO2, or IrO2 buffer layers at various temperatures (room temperature ∼200 °C) by a direct current magnetron sputtering process. The Pt films showed a strong (111)-preferred texture irrespective of the thickness, under-layer, and growth temperature. The authors previously reported [J-E. Lim, D-Y. Park, J.K. Jeong, G. Darlinski, H.J. Kim, and C.S. Hwang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3224 (2002)] that the films were composed of three kinds of grains with slightly different (111) lattice parameters (bulklike, 1.0% and 2.1% larger). This study details the microstructural variations of the Pt films according to the variations of experimental parameters. The different deposition conditions produced slightly different crystalline structures, but the three different (111) lattice parameters were always found. Epitaxial (200) Pt films on a (200) MgO substrate and a highly (111) textured Au thin film on a SiO2/Si did not show the same splitting in the lattice parameter. The grains with 1.0% and 2.1% larger (111) lattice parameter almost disappeared after postannealing at 1000 °C. However, surface chemical binding of the Pt film before and after annealing was unchanged. Therefore, it is believed that the lattice parameter splitting in the (111) textured Pt film originated from the interfacial grains with the distorted crystal structure due probably to growth stress.
(200)-oriented Pt thin films were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by dc magnetron sputtering using Ar/O2 gas mixtures. Oxygen incorporation into Pt films changed deposition rate, resistivity, stress, and preferred orientation of the films. Increase in film resistivity and decrease in tensile stress were presumed to be the results of the incorporated oxygen into grain boundaries, while the change of preferred orientation resulted from the oxygen incorporation into the Pt lattice. The preferential growth of (200) planes with less total strain energy from the incorporated oxygen resulted in strong (200) preferred orientation in Pt films.
Highly (200)-oriented Pt films on SiO2/Si substrates were successfully prepared by a combination of a dc magnetron sputtering using Ar/O2 gas mixtures and subsequent controlled annealing. The intensity ratio of (200) to (111) planes (I200/I111) was over 200. The (200)-oriented Pt microcrystallites were less susceptible to amorphization due to their lower strain energy with oxygen incorporation than (111)-oriented ones. The controlled grain growth from the selected (200)-oriented seed microcrystallites during subsequent annealing provided a kinetic pathway where grain growth of the seed microcrystallites was predominant, while suppressing the nucleation of surface energy-driven, (111)-oriented seed microcrystallites and subsequent (111) preferred orientation.
Monoclinic gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) nanowires were catalytically synthesized by electric arc discharge of GaN powders mixed with a small amount (less than 5 %) of transition metals under a pressure of 500 Torr (80 %-Ar + 20 %-O2). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images showed that the average diameter of the wires were about 30 nm and their lengths were as long as up to one hundred micrometer, resulting in extremely large aspect ratio. Fourier diffractogram was indicative of single crystalline nature of the β-Ga2O3 wire. HRTEM image also showed β-Ga2O3 with twin defects at the center of the wire which might play as nucleation seeds. Both X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and FT-Raman spectra of the wires identified the observed nanowires as monoclinic crystalline gallium oxides.
In this study, defect-free Pt films with good adhesion were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by a two-step magnetron sputtering. This method consists of the first sputtering step using Ar/O2 gas mixture and the second step using Ar. After two-step deposition, an annealing process was followed at 600-1,000 °C in ambient atmosphere. In the first step, oxygen containing Pt films were deposited. Oxygen incorporated in the Pt films completely diffused out during the high temperature annealing. After the annealing process, the film became dense without catastrophic failures such as hillock, pinhole or buckling. Adhesion strength of films produced by this process was good enough to pass a tape test. It is believed that the good adhesion and the observed microstructural evolution are related to the oxygen in Pt films introduced during the first sputtering step. Adhesion, microstructural evolution and the role of oxygen in Pt films are briefly discussed.
Pt thin films were deposited by a DC magnetron sputtering with Ar/O2 gas mixtures. Due to the oxygen incorporation into the Pt films, deposition rate and resistivity of as-deposited Pt thin films increased with oxygen fraction in the sputtering gas. No peaks from crystalline Pt oxides were observed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and excessive oxygen incorporation into Pt lead to an amorphous Pt oxide formation. More oxygen could be incorporated in the Pt thin films deposited at lower temperatures and at higher total pressures. Incorporated oxygen was completely removed after an annealing at 800 °C for an hour in air ambient, as the resistivity of the Pt thin films recovered their bulk resistivity values. Tensile stress of the Pt films decreased with oxygen incorporation, and approached a saturation level at high resistivity of the films, presumably due to the formation of amorphous Pt oxides.
Platinum(Pt) films were sputter-deposited on Si02/Si substrates under the mixed gas atmosphere of Ar and O2. Under certain deposition conditions, the films were oriented such that the (100) direction is normal to the substrate surface. The formation of the (100) texture was affected by the gas pressure and film thickness. After annealing at 650 °C for 1 hour, (100) oriented Pt films with the resistivity of pure Pt were obtained. The annealed Pt films all passed a tape adhesion test and had no defects such as hillocks or pinholes. The experimental results from this work are presented.
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