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Peanut shell plays key roles in protecting the seed from diseases and pest infestation but also in the processing of peanut and is an important byproduct of peanut production. Most studies on peanut shell have focused on the utilization of its chemical applications, but the genetic basis of shell-related traits is largely unknown. A panel of 320 peanut (Arachis hypogaea) accessions including var. hypogaea, var. vulgaris, var. fastigiata and var. hirsuta was used to study the genetic basis of two physical and five microstructure-related traits in peanut shell. Significant phenotypic differences were revealed among the accessions of var. hypogaea, var. hirsuta, var. vulgaris and var. fastigiata for mechanical strength, thickness, three sclerenchymatous layer projections and main cell shape of the sclerenchymatous layer. We identified 10 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) through genome-wide association study (P < 5.0 × 10−6) combining the shell-related traits and high-quality SNPs. In total, 192 genes were located in physical proximity to the significantly associated SNPs, and 11 candidate genes were predicted related to their potential contribution to the development and structure of the peanut shell. All SNPs were detected on the B genome demonstrating the biased contribution of the B genome for the phenotypical make-up of peanut. Exploring the newly identified candidate genes will provide insight into the molecular pathways that regulate peanut shell-related traits and provide valuable information for molecular marker-assisted breeding of an improved peanut shell.
Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the etiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) as well as 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8.96 years (interquartile range 8.29 to 9.53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85; P<0.001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HRs for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0.84 (0.73 to 0.96), 0.84 (0.77 to 0.92), and 0.71 (0.62 to 0.80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (P for interaction=0.078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14% to 84% through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation
The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity obtained by reduced-rank regression (RRR) with visceral fat index (VFI) as a dependent variable and dyslipidemia in rural adults in Henan, China. A total of 29538 people aged 18–79 were selected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. RRR analysis was used to identify dietary patterns; logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were applied to analyze the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. VFI was used as a mediator to estimate the mediation effect. The dietary pattern in abdominal obesity was characterized by high carbohydrate and red meat intake and low consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, milk, etc. After full adjustment, the highest quartile of dietary pattern scores was significantly associated with an increased risk of dyslipidemia (OR: 1·33, 95 % CI 1·23–1·44, Ptrend < 0·001), there was a non-linear dose–response relationship between them (Poverall-association < 0·001, Pnon-lin-association = 0·022). The result was similar in dose-response between the dietary pattern scores and VFI. The indirect effect partially mediated by VFI was significant (OR: 1·07, 95 % CI 1·06–1·08). VIF explained approximately 53·3 % of odds of dyslipidemia related to the dietary pattern. Abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores positively affected VFI and dyslipidemia; there was a dose-response in both relationships. Dyslipidemia progression increased with higher abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores. In addition, VFI played a partial mediating role in relationship between abdominal obesity dietary pattern and dyslipidemia.
To explore the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the squeaking silkmoths Rhodinia, a genus of wild silkmoths in the family Saturniidae of Lepidoptera, and reveal phylogenetic relationships, the mitogenome of Rhodinia fugax Butler was determined. This wild silkmoth spins a green cocoon that has potential significance in sericulture, and exhibits a unique feature that its larvae can squeak loudly when touched. The mitogenome of R. fugax is a circular molecule of 15,334 bp long and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an A + T-rich region, consistent with previous observations of Saturniidae species. The 370-bp A + T-rich region of R. fugax contains no tandem repeat elements and harbors several features common to the Bombycidea insects, but microsatellite AT repeat sequence preceded by the ATTTA motif is not present. Mitogenome-based phylogenetic analysis shows that R. fugax belongs to Attacini, instead of Saturniini. This study presents the first mitogenome for Rhodinia genus.
In December 2019, an outbreak of an unknown cause of pneumonia [later named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)] occurred in Wuhan, China. This was found to be attributed to a novel coronavirus of zoonotic origin, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; previously named 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV). The SARS-CoV-2, a new type of highly pathogenic human coronavirus related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), spread rapidly worldwide and caused 53,164,803 confirmed infections, including 1,300,576 deaths, by November 13, 2020 (globally, 206,196,367 cases and 4,345,424 deaths as of August 13, 2021). SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV vary in their specific characteristics, regarding epidemics and pathogenesis. This article focuses on the comparison of the virology, epidemiology, and clinical features of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 to reveal their common and distinct properties, to provide an up-to-date resource for the development of advanced systems and strategies to monitor and control future epidemics of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
The antipsychotic dosage of Chinese schizophrenia patients has rarely been studied, although nonstandard dosage has impact on prognosis.
To describe the dosage of antipsychotics in China routine practice.
This was a retrospective cohort study using de-identified data from a Chinese mental health hospital. The included patients were adults (≥18 years) with at least one diagnosis of schizophrenia (ICD-10: F20) and one prescription of any antipsychotic between 2014 and 2019. Date of first identified antipsychotic prescription was defined as index date, patients were followed up until last prescription of antipsychotics, end of 2019, or discontinuation (>60 days without antipsychotic prescription), whichever was earliest. Dosage was summarized using defined daily dose (DDD), calculated by cumulative average daily dose (CAD) with a unit of DDDs/day, i.e., total DDDs of all antipsychotics in follow-up period divided by total days of follow-up. CAD was categorized into low (<0.5 DDDs/day), moderate (0.5-1.5 DDDs/day), and high (>1.5 DDDs/day) groups.
13554 patients were included with an average follow-up of 269.9 days. Median CAD was 0.8 DDDs/day (IQR=0.5-1.3), patients with hospitalization during follow-up and used multiple antipsychotics at the same time had larger median CAD, 1.0 DDDs/day and 1.2 DDDs/days, respectively. There were 3245 (23.9%), 7627 (56.3%), and 2682 (19.8%) patients in low, moderate, and high groups, respectively. The median CAD of high dosage group was 2.5 DDDs/day (IQR=1.9-10.5).
CAD of most Chinese schizophrenia patients was low or moderate. Association between CAD and hospitalization and multiple concurrent antipsychotics merit further research.
In China, the indications of paliperidone extended in schizophrenia adolescents (12-17 years) was approved by National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) in 2017. But, the utilization of paliperidone in this group needs to be further investigated.
To assess paliperidone utilization in schizophrenia adolescents.
The study employed the electronic medical records (EMRs) database from a psychiatry specialized hospital (PH) and a general hospital (GH), respectively. General information, including birth date, gender, visit date, diagnosis (inpatient and outpatient) with ICD-10 coding, drug characterize, prescription date and dosage, was de-identified and standardized for analysis. Schizophrenia adolescents (ICD-10: F20.x) received at least one prescription of paliperidone between 2018 and 2019 were included in this study. Index date was defined as the date of first identified paliperidone prescription. The patients were followed up until the end of 2019 with the last record, or upon reaching 18 years. The database was analyzed based on days of supply, administration frequency, and daily dose.
Overall, 112 and 117 eligible patients were included in the present study from PH and GH, respectively. The median drug supply was 179.0 days and 44.0 days, respectively, during which median number of prescriptions patients received was 6.0 and 3.0. Paliperidone was mostly initiated alone (57.1% and 88.9%) with frequency of once daily (97.3% and 88.9%), and the median of average daily dose during follow-up was 5.7 mg/day and 6.0 mg/day, respectively.
The duration of paliperidone usage was very different in two hospitals, but the dosages in both hospitals were generally agreed with prescribing information.
The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of preterm birth (PTB) and growth from birth to 18 years between twins conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and twins conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) in mainland China. The retrospective cohort study included 1164 twins resulting from IVF and 25,654 twins conceived spontaneously, of which 494 from IVF and 6338 from SC were opposite-sex twins. PTB and low birth weight (LBW), and growth, including length/height and weight, were compared between the two groups at five stages: infancy (0 year), toddler period (1–2 years), preschool (3–5 years), primary or elementary school (6–11 years), and adolescence (10–18 years). Few statistically significant differences were found for LBW and growth between the two groups after adjusting for PTB and other confounders. Twins born by IVF faced an increased risk of PTB compared with those born by SC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] [3.19, 21.13], p < .001 in all twins and aOR 10.12, 95% CI [2.32, 44.04], p = .002 in opposite-sex twins). Twins born by IVF experienced a similar growth at five stages (0–18 years old) when compared with those born by SC. PTB risk, however, is significantly higher for twins conceived by IVF than those conceived by SC.
The effect and the mechanism of high glucose on fish muscle cells are not fully understood. In the present study, muscle cells of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were treated with high glucose (33 mM) in vitro. Cells were incubated in three kinds of medium containing 5 mM glucose, 5 mM glucose and 28 mM mannitol (as an isotonic contrast) or 33 mM glucose named the Control group, the Mannitol group and the high glucose (HG) group, respectively. Results showed that high glucose increased the ADP:ATP ratio and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induced the release of cytochrome C (CytC) and cell apoptosis. High glucose also led to cell glycogen accumulation by increasing the glucose uptake ability and affecting the mRNA expressions of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase. Meanwhile, it activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibited the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway and the expressions of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF). The expressions of myostatin-1 (mstn-1) and E3 ubiquitin ligases including muscle RING-finger protein 1 (murf-1) and muscle atrophy F-box protein (mafbx) were also increased by the high glucose treatment. No difference was found between the Mannitol group and the Control group. These results demonstrate that high glucose has the effects of inducing apoptosis, increasing glycogen accumulation and inhibiting protein synthesis on muscle cells of olive flounder. The mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signalling pathway, AMPK and mTOR pathways participated in these biological effects.
To assess changes in dietary patterns among youths in China after COVID-19 lockdown.
This study was based on the COVID-19 Impact on Lifestyle Change Survey (COINLICS), a national retrospective survey established in early May 2020. The questionnaire was distributed through social media platforms. The sociodemographic information and routine dietary patterns before and after lockdown of participants were investigated. t tests and χ2 tests were used to compare the differences in consumption patterns of twelve major food groups and beverages between sex and across educational levels before and after lockdown. Factor analysis was employed to obtain the main dietary patterns.
A total of 10 082 youths.
A significant decrease was observed in the average weekly frequency of rice intake, while significant increases were observed in the frequency of intake of wheat products, other staple foods, fish, eggs, fresh vegetables, preserved vegetables, fresh fruit and dairy products (all P values < 0·01). Heterogeneities of average weekly frequency existed between sex and across educational levels to different extents. The three main dietary patterns derived were loaded most heavily on dairy products, rice and wheat products, separately; the rice pattern became more dominant than the wheat products pattern after lockdown. The frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption had decreased, while the frequency of other beverages had increased.
Our timely survey would inform policymakers and health professionals of these significant changes in youths’ dietary patterns after lockdown, with heterogeneities observed to different extents between sex and across educational levels, for better policy-making and public health practice.
Fruit intake may influence gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. However, prospective evidence remains controversial and limited. The current study aimed to investigate whether total fruit and specific fruit intake influence GDM risk.
A prospective cohort study was conducted. Dietary information was collected by a 3-d 24-h dietary recall. All participants underwent a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 gestational weeks. Log-binomial models were used to estimate the association between fruit intake and GDM risk, and the results are presented as relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI.
Totally, 1453 healthy pregnant women in 2017.
Total fruit intake was not associated with lower GDM risk (RR of 1·03 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·27) (Ptrend = 0·789)). The RR of GDM risk was 0·73 for the highest anthocyanin-rich fruit intake quartile compared with the lowest quartile (95 % CI 0·56, 0·93; Ptrend = 0·015). A higher grape intake had a linear inverse association with GDM risk (Q4 v. Q1: RR = 0·65; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·98; Ptrend = 0·044), and after further adjustment for anthocyanin intake, the inverse association tended to be non-linear (Q4 v. Q1: RR = 0·65; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·98; Ptrend = 0·079). However, we did not find an association between glycaemic index-grouped fruit, glycaemic load-grouped fruit or other fruit subtype intake and GDM risk.
In conclusion, specific fruit intake (particularly anthocyanin-rich fruit and grapes) but not total fruit intake was inversely associated with GDM risk.
The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between spicy food intake and serum lipids levels in Chinese rural population.
Information on spicy food flavour and intake frequency was obtained using a two-item questionnaire survey. Dietary data were collected using a validated thirteen-item FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and measured for total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were employed to examine the relationship between spicy food and serum lipids levels according to the spicy food flavour and intake frequency, respectively.
A cross-sectional study in Henan Province.
38 238 participants aged 18–79 years old.
Spicy flavour and intake frequency were consistently associated with decreased TC and non-HDL-cholesterol levels but mildly associated with elevated TAG levels. Each level increment in spicy flavour was inversely associated with high TC (OR: 0·91; 95 % CI 0·88, 0·93) and high non-HDL-cholesterol (OR: 0·88; 95 % CI 0·85, 0·91) but positively associated with high TAG (OR: 1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·07). Similarly, 1-d increment in spicy food intake frequency was also inversely associated with high TC (OR: 0·92; 95 % CI 0·91, 0·94) and high non-HDL-cholesterol (OR: 0·91; 95 % CI 0·89, 0·93) but positively associated with high TAG (OR: 1·04; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·06).
Spicy food intake was mildly associated with increased risk of abnormal TAG level, significantly associated with decreased risk of abnormal TC and non-HDL levels. Spicy food intake may be contribute to the management of lipid levels.
Bacterial dysentery (BD) brings a major disease burden to developing countries. Exploring the influence of temperature and its interaction with other meteorological factors on BD is significant for the prevention and early warning of BD in the context of climate change. Daily BD cases and meteorological data from 2008 to 2018 were collected in all nine prefecture-level cities in Jilin Province. A one-stage province-level model and a two-stage city-specific multivariate meta-pooled level distributed lag non-linear model were established to explore the correlation between temperature and BD, then the weather-stratified generalised additive model was used to test the interaction. During the study period, a total of 26 971 cases of BD were developed. The one-stage and two-stage cumulative dose-response ‘J’ curves overlapped, and results showed a positive correlation between temperature and BD with a 1–6 days lag effect. Age group ⩾5 years was found to be more sensitive to the effects. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between temperature, humidity and precipitation (P = 0.004, 0.002, respectively) on BD under high temperature (>0 °C), reminding residents and policymakers to pay attention to the prevention of BD in situations with both high temperature and humidity, high temperature and precipitation during the temperate monsoon climate.
With the development of China’s economy, China’s aviation market has expanded, and related industries have also developed rapidly. For the long-term development of the industry, many countries and enterprises began to make demand forecasts with different levels for the product market. The same is true for China’s civil aircraft-related industries. There are a variety of predictive models, but not all of them are appropriate for the prediction of civil aircraft market demand. This paper introduces a variety of modelling methods for forecasting models, including time series forecasting models and causal analysis forecasting models. The contribution of our work is the adoption of a new coefficient determination method to establish a variable-weight combination forecasting model, which greatly improves the forecasting accuracy. In addition, we also propose a new and more stable prediction model, the chain prediction model. Simulation prediction is carried out for each model in this work. Through the analysis and comparison of the prediction results, we conclude that the prediction effects of the variable weight combination prediction model and the chain prediction model are superior to those of other single prediction models. The chain prediction model in particular has better performance in medium- and long-term prediction, compared with the other prediction models. Finally, the model is applied to predict the demand of Chinese civil aircraft in the next 20 years, which confirms that the Chinese civil aircraft market will expand in the future.
To clarify nutrient supplementation usage and primary source of information among pregnant women in China.
This cross-sectional study used information on nutrient supplementation and primary source of information collected via face-to-face interviews. Data on the usage of folic acid, calcium/vitamin D, iron, vitamins, docosahexaenoic acid, and other dietary supplements were collected. Primary source of information were categorized as family/relatives, friends/co-workers, the Internet, books/magazines, television/radio, doctors, other people, and oneself.
Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Chengdu, China.
1081 Chinese pregnant women aged ≥ 20 years with singleton pregnancies.
In all three trimesters of pregnancy, usage was highest and most stable for folic acid (81.7%), followed by vitamins (vitamin A, B-group vitamins, vitamin C, and multivitamins; 75.0%), whereas calcium/vitamin D (51.4%) and iron (18.1%) usage was low, potentially indicating a deficiency risk. All supplementation usage percentages increased with pregnancy duration (p < 0.05). Notably, approximately 10% of the pregnant women in our study did not use any nutrient supplementation, and this was especially common in early pregnancy. More than 50% of the women reported getting information on nutrient supplementation from family members, and about 30% reported getting this information from doctors.
Among pregnant women in China, awareness about nutrient supplementation increases as the pregnancy progresses, but some types of nutrient supplementation (such as calcium/vitamin D and iron) remain at low levels. It is necessary to pay more attention to the health education of pregnant women in China, and the influence of family members should be emphasized.
In this paper, we designed two different configurations with locally isothermal sidewalls, where the temperature is set to be the bulk temperature, to control the large-scale circulation in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection, namely two-point control and four-point control. At fixed Rayleigh number $Ra=10^8$ and Prandtl number $Pr=2$, a series of direct numerical simulations are performed on both two-dimensional (2-D) and quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2-D) cavities with both types of control, where the width of the control area is fixed at $\delta _c=0.05$ and the vertical distance from the cavity centre $h_c$ varies from 0 to 0.45 with an interval of 0.05. Our results show that the control effect depends on $h_c$, the control configurations as well as the flow dimensions. For 2-D cavities, both two-point control and four-point control suppress the flow reversal when $h_c \geq 0.05$, accompanied by the enhancement of vertical heat transfer and the strength of the large-scale circulation. For quasi-2-D cavities, the suppression of the flow reversals is obvious with two-point control and $h_c\geq 0.05$, while the effect is rather limited with four-point control. Further experiments with $Pr=5.7$ and $Ra$ up to $7.36\times10^8$ show that two-point control with $h_c=0.15$ can effectively suppress the flow reversal, while two-point control with $h_c=0$ can suppress the reversals at low $Ra=1.93\times 10^8$ and activate them at higher $Ra=7.36\times 10^8$, which agrees well with our numerical simulations.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Novel adipokines like tetranectin help explain why some people progress from obesity to diseases like diabetes, atherosclerosis, and dislipidemia OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Obesity has an established association with diabetes, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. Preventing progression from obesity to insulin resistance requires understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the loss of insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue is well known to function as an endocrine organ that produces many kinds of adipokines. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Blood sample analysis from human patients and mice was used to determine associations between tetranectin and obesity. Samples were tested with a monoclonal anti-tetranectin antibody for detection with western blot. A tetranectin mutant knock out mouse line was compared to wild type littermates on high fat diet for 4 months. Insulin tolerance tests and glucose tolerance were used to determine progression to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Histological analysis of metabolic tissue was used to demonstrate adipocyte hypertrophy and liver steatosis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the current study, we report the identification and initial characterization of a novel adipokine tetranectin. Tetranectin, which is coded by the C-type lectin domain family 3 member B (CLEC3B) gene, is ubiquitously expressed in various mouse tissues, whereas it is highly enriched in white adipose tissue. We found that the serum level of tetranectin was much higher in both obese and diabetic patients. Knocking out the tetranectin gene in mice protected against glucose intolerance in males but reduced insulin and glucose tolerance in females, without effects on food intake and body weight for either sex. Mechanistically, tetranectin targets liver tissues and its deficiency increases lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in females. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: We have identified a novel adipokine which mediates a different metabolic crosstalk among tissues to maintain systemic glucose and lipid metabolism in different genders. Further investigation of tetranectin’s function could yield a new target for precise therapeutic treatment for obesity and its associated metabolic diseases in different genders
We aimed to examine the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) scores during the first trimester and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk in a Chinese population. A total of 1455 women were included in 2017. Dietary information during the first trimester was collected by 24-h dietary recalls for 3 d. The overall, animal and plant LCD scores, which indicated adherence to different low-carbohydrate dietary patterns, were calculated. GDM was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks gestation. Log-binomial models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. The results showed that the multivariable-adjusted RR of GDM from the lowest to the highest quartiles of the overall LCD score were 1·00 (reference), 1·15 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·42), 1·30 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·60) and 1·24 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·52) (P = 0·026 for trend). Multivariable-adjusted RR (95 % CI) of GDM from the lowest to the highest quartiles of the animal LCD score were 1·00 (reference), 1·20 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·50), 1·41 (95 % CI 1·14, 1·73) and 1·29 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·59) (P = 0·002 for trend). After additional adjustment for gestational weight gain before GDM diagnosis, the association of the overall LCD score with GDM risk was non-significant, while the association of animal LCD score with GDM risk remained significant. In conclusion, a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern characterised by high animal fat and protein during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of GDM in Chinese women.