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The menopause transition is a vulnerable period that can be associated with changes in mood and cognition. The present study aimed to investigate whether a symptomatic menopausal transition increases the risks of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders.
This population-based, retrospective cohort study analysed data from five electronic health record databases in South Korea. Women aged 45–64 years with and without symptomatic menopausal transition were matched 1:1 using propensity-score matching. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A primary analysis of 5-year follow-up data was conducted, and an intention-to-treat analysis was performed to identify different risk windows over 5 or 10 years. The primary outcome was first-time diagnosis of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorder. We used Cox proportional hazard models and a meta-analysis to calculate the summary hazard ratio (HR) estimates across the databases.
Propensity-score matching resulted in a sample of 17,098 women. Summary HRs for depression (2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63–2.71), anxiety (1.64; 95% CI 1.01–2.66), and sleep disorders (1.47; 95% CI 1.16–1.88) were higher in the symptomatic menopausal transition group. In the subgroup analysis, the use of HRT was associated with an increased risk of depression (2.21; 95% CI 1.07–4.55) and sleep disorders (2.51; 95% CI 1.25–5.04) when compared with non-use of HRT.
Our findings suggest that women with symptomatic menopausal transition exhibit an increased risk of developing depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. Therefore, women experiencing a symptomatic menopausal transition should be monitored closely so that interventions can be applied early.
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to depressive disorder, and adolescents with both present poor outcomes. However, evidence for the safety of concomitantly using a methylphenidate (MPH) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) among adolescent ADHD patients is limited, a literature gap aimed to address through this investigation.
We conducted a new-user cohort study using a nationwide claims database in South Korea. We identified a study population as adolescents who were diagnosed both ADHD and depressive disorder. MPH-only users were compared with patients who prescribed both a SSRI and a MPH. Fluoxetine and escitalopram users were also compared to find a preferable treatment option. Thirteen outcomes including neuropsychiatric, gastrointestinal, and other events were assessed, taking respiratory tract infection as a negative control outcome. We matched the study groups using a propensity score and used the Cox proportional hazard model to calculate the hazard ratio. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted in various epidemiologic settings.
The risks of all the outcomes between the MPH-only and SSRI groups were not significantly different. Regarding SSRI ingredients, the risk of tic disorder was significantly lower in the fluoxetine group than the escitalopram group [HR 0.43 (0.25–0.71)]. However, there was no significant difference in other outcomes between the fluoxetine and escitalopram groups.
The concomitant use of MPHs and SSRIs showed generally safe profiles in adolescent ADHD patients with depression. Most of the differences between fluoxetine and escitalopram, except those concerning tic disorder, were not significant.
Predicting the course of depression is necessary for personalized treatment. Impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) was introduced as a promising depression biomarker, but no consensus was made. This study aimed to predict IGM at the time of depression diagnosis and examine the relationship between long-term prognosis and predicted results.
Clinical data were extracted from four electronic health records in South Korea. The study population included patients with depression, and the outcome was IGM within 1 year. One database was used to develop the model using three algorithms. External validation was performed using the best algorithm across the three databases. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to determine the model’s performance. Kaplan–Meier and Cox survival analyses of the risk of hospitalization for depression as the long-term outcome were performed. A meta-analysis of the long-term outcome was performed across the four databases.
A prediction model was developed using the data of 3,668 people, with an AUC of 0.781 with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression. In the external validation, the AUCs were 0.643, 0.610, and 0.515. Through the predicted results, survival analysis and meta-analysis were performed; the hazard ratios of risk of hospitalization for depression in patients predicted to have IGM was 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.41, p = 0.027) at a 3-year follow-up.
We developed prediction models for IGM occurrence within a year. The predicted results were related to the long-term prognosis of depression, presenting as a promising IGM biomarker related to the prognosis of depression.
The risk factors of environmental contamination by SARS-CoV-2 are largely unknown. We analyzed 1,320 environmental samples obtained from COVID-19 patients over 1 year. The risk factors for contamination of COVID-19 patients’ surrounding environment were higher viral load in the respiratory tract and shorter duration from symptom onset to sample collection.
Determining valid zygosity is a basic and important requirement in a twin study, because misdiagnosing zygosity leads to biased results. The Healthy Twin Study has collected data from adult like-sex twins and their families since 2005. In the study, a questionnaire to determine zygosity was developed comprising four questions; one concerning the degree of resemblance, and three concerning the degree of confusion by the resemblance. Among 2,761 individuals (624 twin pairs) of twin and their families, 406 pairs of twins (mean age 38.3, 63.5% women) with both questionnaire and genotype information were selected to examine the validity of the zygosity questionnaire using 16 short tandem repeat markers. We first determined individual zygosity including undetermined category, and then decided the zygosity of a twin pair using a decision tree. Sensitivity of questionnaire diagnosis was 98.8% for monozygotic (MZ) and 88.9% for dizygotic (DZ) twins, and positive predictive value was 97.2% for MZ and 95.0% for DZ. When we compared correctly and wrongly diagnosed twin pairs, misdiagnosed DZ twins (nine pairs) showed striking similarity in stature or obesity even exceeding that of true MZ twins. Our finding suggests that a parsimonious questionnaire method of diagnosing the zygosity will be useful, and adding physical or physiological measurements to a questionnaire of zygosity diagnosis will either confound the correct diagnosis or reduce the efficiency of the study compared with using questionnaire alone or with introducing genotyping.
Learning to read and to write influences not only verbal skills but also global cognitive performance. Our study aimed to compare the visuoconstructional abilities of elderly illiterates with those of elderly literates. A total of 125 healthy subjects over 65 years old were recruited. Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) constructional praxis examination were used. We divided subjects into three groups (educated literate n = 53, uneducated literate n = 36 and uneducated illiterate n = 36). Interlocking pentagons drawing, a part of the K-MMSE, was scored using the 6-point hierarchical scale. The uneducated-illiterate group obtained significantly lower scores than did the other two groups. Scores on the ADAS-cog constructional praxis test were highest in the educated-literate group and those in the uneducated-illiterate group obtained the lowest scores. We demonstrated that illiteracy influences not only language performance but also visuoconstructional functioning. (JINS, 2011, 17, 934–939)
By injecting additional argon gas, we were able to grow one-dimensional ZnO nanorod arrays with a uniform distribution on a large scale at a low temperature of less than 330 °C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. All of the nanorods grown on the sapphire substrate had a 30° in-plane rotation with respect to the substrate and showed the epitaxial characteristics of [10¯10]ZnO//[11¯20]sapphire, despite the low-temperature growth. These ZnO nanorods with high crystalline quality exhibited a high enhancement factor and low turn-on field value, thus having good potential to be used as a field emitter.
Amperometric urea sensor is more suitable than optical and potentiometric urea sensor to diagnose hyperammonemia. However, because sensitivity in low concentration decreases remarkably, despite amperometric urea sensor has been studied for a long time it has not been applied for clinical diagnosis. In this paper, a new structure for an amperometric urea sensor was fabricated by MEMS, electrochemical etching, and electrostatic covalent binding techniques. Until now most amperometric urea sensors have had a membrane fixed on top of the transducer. That method often leads to malfunction of the sensor, arising from problems such as inadequate membrane adhesion, insufficient mechanical stability, and low sensitivity. To solve these kinds of problems, urease (Urs) was immobilized by electrostatic covalent binding method on the porous silicon (PSi) substrate coated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Electrostatic covalent binding method was used to keep anisotropic orientation of urease on SAM.
Compared to plastic, from the view point of ultra low temperature poly-Si (ULTPS) processes for realizing flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AM-OLED) display, SSF offers high thermal resistance and chemical stability, and lithography stability. As SSF is stiffer than plastic film, SSF is expected to reduce stress which originates from difference in coefficient of thermal expansion. However, SSF substrate itself also bears surface roughness problem, which necessitates an appropriate planarization step. Also to fully integrate both the drive circuits and the pixel thin-film transistor(TFT)s in a monolithic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology high mobility is required, calling for poly-Si usage.
We will deal with the planarization process, and then address various processing issues. Especially, we will demonstrate our successful SLS of Si on SSF substrates. Finally we show the device performances. All fabrication temperatures were kept below 200 oC to meet a ULTPS process.
Due to the rolling process for manufacturing foils, the SSF surface is rough. We have measured average roughness of 500 nm, respectively. With benzocyclobutene (BCB), we have successfully planarized the surface with average roughness was less than 0.5 nm.
Our TFT's active layer was obtained by laser crystallizing amorphous Si (a-Si) films. To obtain a high quality gate dielectric film, we formed a SiO2 film using an O2 plasma treatment on the surface of the poly-Si film and then deposited Al2O3 film by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. Then gate metal was deposited and patterned. Source and drain regions were p+ doped by ion implantation to form a self-aligned gate structure. We have used SiNx film as interlayer dielectrics.
Briefly we discuss a practical approach for realizing SLS on a SiO2 buffer. The Si-on-SiO2 layer stacking is energetically unstable. Should have not controlled the heat during laser crystallization, liquid Si would recede to expose the SiO2 layer. Dewetting is suppressed by adjusting the buffer density, and densifying the a-Si film. To implement the SLS, we have optimally conjugated the densities of the buffer film and the a-Si film to produce Si grains with sizes of ~6 ¥ìm on a BCB planarized SSF.
Our p-channel TFT transfer performance exhibits a field effect mobility (¥ì) of 95 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage (Vt) of -3 V and a sub-threshold swing(S-S) of 0.5 V/dec.. The off-current level is ~ 10 pA at drain voltage (Vd) of -1V and the Ion/Ioff is 106 . Especially our stable Vt consents to the electrical stability for driving displays. This feature might be attributed to the improved interface between the active layer and the gate dielectrics by plasma oxidation.
The Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1) is responsible for ion transport across the secretory and absorptive epithelia, the regulation of cell volume, and possibly the modulation of cell growth and development. It has been reported that a variety of cells, including osteoblasts, contain this cotransporter. In this study, the physiological role of NKCC1 in osteoclastogenesis was exploited in a co-culture system. Bumetanide, a specific inhibitor of NKCC1, reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells. In order to investigate the mechanism by which bumetanide inhibits osteoclastogenesis, the mRNA expressions of the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were analysed by RT-PCR. Exposure of osteoblastic cells to a medium containing 1 µM bumetanide reduced RANKL mRNA expression induced by 10 nM 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, RANKL expression was also analysed with enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) using anti-RANKL antibody. The expression of RANKL was decreased with the increase of bumetanide concentration. In contrast, the expression of OPG mRNA, a novel tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family member was increased in the presence of bumetanide. These results imply that bumetanide inhibits osteoclast differentiation by reducing the RANKL/OPG ratio in osteoblastic cells. However, no significant difference in M-CSF mRNA expression was observed when bumetanide was added. Also, we found that the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), which regulates the activity of various transcriptional factors, was reduced by bumetanide treatment. Conclusively, these findings suggest that NKCC1 in osteoblasts has a pivotal role in 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced osteoclastogenesis partly via the phosphorylation of JNK. Experimental Physiology (2003) 88.5, 569-574.
Sputtered TiN (30–120 nm thick)/Ti (30 nm thick) films were studied as a diffusion barrier between silicon substrate and copper films. The effects of TiN thickness and the existence of a SiO2 layer between Ti and silicon substrate on the diffusion barrier property were investigated using various characterization methods. The copper diffusion barrier property of TiN/Ti was found to be affected not only by the TiN thickness, that is diffusion distance, but also by the microstructure of the TiN, which changes with the thickness of TiN film. The existence of the SiO2 layer enhanced the diffusion barrier property of TiN/Ti. This is because the SiO2 layer between Ti and Si inhibited the formation of titanium silicides, so the Ti layer was available to be used as the sacrificial diffusion barrier for copper.
The substrate bias was applied during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process of copper in an effort to change the adsorption behaviors of the reactant. Copper films were deposited on TiN and SiO2 from Cu(hfac)(tmvs) with the substrate bias and without one. The surface morphology, the thickness, the sheet resistance and the purity of the films were investigated. When the negative substrate bias of -30 V was applied to the substrate, the deposition rate of copper increased both on TiN and SiO2. No change was observed in the chemical composition of the copper film deposited with substrate bias in comparison with that of the copper film deposited with no bias. It was calculated that Cu(hfac) has the dipole moment whose direction is from copper to hfac. Under the d. c.electric field, dipole tends to align along the poling direction. Resulting from the overlapping population (OP) value analysis, the improvement of deposition rate under negative substrate bias was explained due to the adsorption of copper atom in Cu(hfac) species directly onto the substrate by the electric field applied between the substrate and the gas showerhead.
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