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This study presents novel findings on stochastic electron heating via a random electron cyclotron wave (ECW) in a spherical tokamak. Hard x ray measurements demonstrate the time evolution of hard x ray counts at different energy bands, consistent with predictions from the stochastic heating model. The ECW heating rate shows a positive correlation with applied power, confirming the effectiveness of stochastic heating. Remarkably, the ECW-driven plasma current remains insensitive to ECW incidence angle, consistent with model predictions. The observed stochastic heating of electrons offers potential for exploring innovative non-inductive current drive modes in spherical tokamaks. This research contributes to the understanding of plasma behaviour and motivates the development of new models for non-inductive current drive in fusion devices.
With the rapid development of the maritime industry and the emergence of unmanned ships, it is necessary to continuously review the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972, COLREGs). This paper provides an overview of the developing history of the COLREGs and summarises the interpretations made by the International Maritime Organization official and academic scholars. Additionally, the paper discusses the application of the COLREGs in collision avoidance geometry and autonomous collision avoidance systems. Furthermore, the necessity and key points of revisions to adapt to industry advancements are discussed, along with an analysis of the main challenges faced. Finally, in light of the continuous progress and implementation of the outcome of the Regulatory Scoping Exercise for the Use of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS), the paper points out that achieving consistency between manned and unmanned vessels, as well as developing COLREGs-based autonomous collision avoidance systems for more complex scenarios, is expected to be a significant trend in the future.
To identify the optimal weight gain at the end of the second trimester.
This was a population-based cohort study from the antenatal care system in Tianjin, China. We calculated gestational weight gain (GWG) based on the weight measured in the first trimester and the end of the second trimester. Restricted cubic spline analysis was performed to model the possible non-linear relationships between GWG and adverse outcomes. The optimal GWG was defined as the value of the lowest risk. Non-inferiority margins and the shape of the spline curves identified the recommended ranges in Chinese-specific BMI categories.
Tianjin Maternal and Child Health Cohort.
Singleton pregnant women aged 18–45 years.
In total, 69 859 pregnant women were included. Adverse outcome (including stillbirth, preterm birth, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, small and large for gestational age) was significantly associated with GWG at the end of the second trimester. The risk score was non-linearly correlated with GWG in the underweight, normal weight and overweight groups. GWG at the end of the second trimester should not be < 7 kg in underweight group. For most normal-weight women, a GWG of about 8 kg is optimal. Pregnant women who are overweight should not have a GWG of more than 9 kg. We advised women with overweight and obesity to keep positive growth of GWG (> 0 kg) in the first and second trimesters.
According to the comprehensive adverse maternal and infant outcomes, we recommend the optimal GWG at the end of the second trimester. This study may provide a considerable reference for weight management.
The audit was undertaken to explore if inpatients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), or whose condition has not adequately responded to two antipsychotics of an optimal duration and dose, were offered clozapine as per NICE guidelines (CG178 126.96.36.199).
Data were collected retrospectively and anonymously from all electronic notes via the UK-CRIS analysis platform.
The inclusion criteria required patients, aged 18–64 years, to have a schizophrenia (ICD10 F20) diagnosis and to have been admitted to one of ten Trust inpatient wards between 01/01/2020 and 01/01/2021.
Patients were required to fulfil the criteria of treatment resistance, as having an inadequate response to two or more antipsychotic drugs, one of which was an atypical agent.
Patients who had previously tried or were currently on clozapine were excluded. Those with non-schizophrenia psychotic disorders were also excluded. 347,645 records were electronically screened according to the criteria, and 209 records were reviewed.
43 patients from the 209 patients reviewed were found to be eligible for clozapine. 28 (65%) were offered clozapine during their admission and 9 of these patients had started the titration process (21% of those eligible).
Of the 19 patients who declined clozapine when offered, 14 had refused the drug with the most common reason of not accepting the required blood monitoring (n=10).
Of the 15 eligible patients who were not offered clozapine, the clinical team had documented a consideration to offer clozapine in 6 patients (14%) but had rejected its, predominantly due to concerns of non-compliance.
For 3 patients (7%) the clinical team considered for but did not offer clozapine. There was no documentation regarding clozapine for 6 patients (14%).
This audit identified that most patients with TRS were offered clozapine during their admission. However, a proportion of patients were not offered the gold standard treatment for TRS and this may lead to poorer outcomes.
It demonstrated that a minority of eligible patients ultimately start the drug. There are barriers for eligible patients to accept clozapine, for instance around the regular blood monitoring required.
A high-energy, alignment-insensitive, injection-seeded Q-switched Ho:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single-frequency laser is developed. Both the slave Q-switched laser and the seed laser are Ho:YAG ring lasers based on a pair of corner cubic reflectors. The seed laser has an available power of 830 mW at 2096.667 nm. At 100 Hz, the Q-switched Ho:YAG laser provides a single-frequency pulsed output using injection-seeded technology. The 7.3 mJ single-frequency pulse energy from the slave laser has a pulse width of 161.2 ns and is scaled to 33.3 mJ after passing through the Ho:YAG single-pass amplifier. According to the measurement results of the heterodyne beating technique, the single-frequency pulse has a half-width of 4.12 MHz.
The relationship between magmatism and gold mineralization has been a topic of interest in understanding the formation of ore deposits. The Baizhangzi gold deposit, located in the northern margin of the North China Craton, is hosted by the Baizhangzi granite (BZG) and provides a case to evaluate the relation between granite and gold mineralization in Late Triassic. In this study, we present petrography, bulk geochemistry, zircon U-Pb isotope and trace elements data, as well as major elements of biotite and plagioclase for the BZG to evaluate the petrogenesis and link with gold mineralization. The BZG comprises biotite monzogranite, biotite-bearing monzogranite and monzogranite (BZGs). Zircon U-Pb geochronology shows that all the granitoids of BZGs were coeval with a formation age of 232 Ma. The granitoids, with high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr, while low Y and Yb, show adakitic affinity. They are enriched in LILFs (e.g., Rb, Ba, Th, U and Sr) and LREEs, while depletion in HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, P and Ti). The geochemical and mineral chemical data suggest that the granitoids have experienced the fractional crystallization of biotite + plagioclase + K- feldspar + apatite. Crystallization temperature is estimated as ca. 700°C, and pressure is between 0.71 kbar and 1.60 kbar. The monzogranite shows higher values of logfO2, △FMQ and △NNO than the biotite-bearing monzogranite, ranging from −19.76 to −11.71, −4.93 to +3.67 and −5.48 to +3.11, respectively. The fractional crystallization, together with high fO2, K-metasomatism and low evolution degree, provided favourable conditions for gold mineralization.
In this work, we investigate the characteristics of wind turbine wakes for three different blade designs (i.e. the NREL-Ori, NREL-Root and NREL-Tip designs, where the NREL-Ori refers to the baseline offshore 5 MW wind turbine designed by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory) under turbulent inflows using large-eddy simulations with the actuator surface model. The load on the blade is higher near the blade root/tip for the NREL-Root/NREL-Tip designs when compared with the NREL-Ori design, while their thrust coefficients are the same. The results show that the blade designs influence the velocity deficit in the near wake, turbulence kinetic energy and wake meandering (both amplitude and frequency). In the near-wake region, the magnitude of the velocity deficit from the NREL-Root design is higher. As for the turbulence kinetic energy, its maximum in the near wake is higher for the NREL-Tip design, while in the far wake, it is higher for the NREL-Root design. Analyses of the instantaneous spanwise wake centre positions show higher meandering amplitude for the NREL-Root design, with the magnitudes of the low-frequency components approximately the same as the other two designs under the same inflow. The dominant meandering frequencies from different designs are different, with lower values for the NREL-Root design for which the vortex structures near the hub of low frequency play leading roles, and higher values for the NREL-Tip design for which the flow structures of high frequency in the tip shear layer are more important.
The subduction of the Bangong–Nujiang Ocean is important in the geological evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. In this paper, we report new zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotopic data and whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for Early Cretaceous dacites from the Rena-Co area (RCA) in the southern Qiangtang Terrane (QT), central Tibet and use these data to better understand the tectonic evolution of the Bangong–Nujiang suture. LA–ICP-MS dating of zircons yields ages of 109.5 ± 0.6 Ma to 109.6 ± 0.8 Ma for the dacites from the RCA. Geochemically, these dacites are medium-K calc-alkaline and show high SiO2 contents of 64.79–70.37 wt.%, high Sr contents of 517–598 ppm and low Y contents of 8.45–10.7 ppm, similar to those of typical adakites. Additionally, all the rocks are strongly enriched in light rare earth elements and some large ion lithophile elements (e.g. Rb, U, K and Cs) but significantly depleted in high-field-strength elements (e.g. Nb, Ta and Ti), consistent with the geochemical characteristics of arc-type magmas formed in the subduction zone. Moreover, these adakite-like dacites show whole-rock initial (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.705119 to 0.705491, (206Pb/204Pb)i ratios of 18.489 to 18.508, (207Pb/204Pb)i ratios of 15.591 to 15.612, (208Pb/204Pb)i ratios of 38.599 to 38.686, ϵNd(t) values of −0.28 to +1.25 and single-stage Nd model ages of 642 to 818 Ma, as well as significantly positive zircon ϵHf(t) values of 3.9–13.1, with young Hf-depleted mantle ages of 331 to 923 Ma. These geochemical and isotopic data indicate that they are most likely derived from the juvenile thickened mafic lower continental crust, which contains partial melts of metasomatized peridotite and subduction-related fluids in the magma source region. Based on previous studies and our new data, we propose that the RCA adakite-like dacites are most likely a result of the northwards subduction of the Bangong–Nujiang Ocean lithosphere beneath the southern QT during the Early Cretaceous and that a slab rollback model could explain the formation of the RCA adakite-like dacites.
The relationships between childhood weight self-misperception and obesity-related factors particularly health markers have not been extensively discussed. This study aims to examine the associations between weight self-misperception and obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, lifestyles and cardio-metabolic markers among Chinese paediatric population.
Data sourced from a national survey in Chinese seven provinces in 2013.
Children and adolescents aged 5–19 years.
Of the total 14 079 participants, there were 14·5 % and 2·2 % participants over-estimated and under-perceived their weight, respectively. Multi-variable logistic regression was applied to calculate OR and 95 % CI (95 % Cl) of obesity-related behaviours and cardio-metabolic markers by actual and perceived weight status. Individuals who perceived themselves as overweight/obese were more likely to have prolonged screen time, insufficient dairy intake and over sugar-sweetened beverages consumption (all P < 0·05), regardless of their weight. Furthermore, actual overweight/obese individuals had higher odds of abnormal cardio-metabolic markers, but a smaller magnitude of association was found among weight under-estimators. Among non-overweight/obese individuals, weight over-estimation was positively associated with abdominal obesity (OR: 10·49, 95 % CI: 7·45, 14·76), elevated blood pressure (OR: 1·30, 95 % CI: 1·12, 1·51) and dyslipidemia (OR: 1·43, 95 % CI: 1·29, 1·58).
Weight over-perception was more prevalent than under-estimation, particularly in girls. Weight over-estimators tended to master better knowledge but behave more unhealthily; both weight over-perception and actual overweight/obesity status were associated with poorer cardio-metabolic markers. Future obesity intervention programmes should additionally pay attention to the population with inaccurate estimation of weight who were easily overlooked.
The timely identification of the high-risk groups for nosocomial infections (NIs) plays a vital role in its prevention and control. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate whether the ABO blood group is a risk factor for NI. In this study, patients with NI and non-infection were matched by the propensity score matching method and a logistic regression model was used to analyse the matched datasets. The study found that patients with the B&AB blood group were susceptible to Escherichia coli (OR = 1.783, p = 0.039); the A blood group were susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus (OR = 2.539, p = 0.019) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 5.724, p = 0.003); the A&AB blood group were susceptible to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 4.061, p = 0.008); the AB blood group were vulnerable to urinary tract infection (OR = 13.672, p = 0.019); the B blood group were susceptible to skin and soft tissue infection (OR = 2.418, p = 0.016); and the B&AB blood group were vulnerable to deep incision infection (OR = 4.243, p = 0.043). Summarily, the patient’s blood group is vital for identifying high-risk groups for NIs and developing targeted prevention and control measures for NIs.
Achieving an all-fiber ultra-fast system with above kW average power and mJ pulse energy is extremely challenging. This paper demonstrated a picosecond monolithic master oscillator power amplifier system at a 25 MHz repetition frequency with an average power of approximately 1.2 kW, a pulse energy of approximately 48 μJ and a peak power of approximately 0.45 MW. The nonlinear effects were suppressed by adopting a dispersion stretched seed pulse (with a narrow linewidth of 0.052 nm) and a multi-mode master amplifier with an extra-large mode area; then an ultimate narrow bandwidth of 1.32 nm and a moderately broadened pulse of approximately 107 ps were achieved. Meanwhile, the great spatio-temporal stability was verified experimentally, and no sign of transverse mode instability appeared even at the maximum output power. The system has shown great power and energy capability with a sacrificed beam propagation product of 5.28 mm$\cdot$mrad. In addition, further scaling of the peak power and pulse energy can be achieved by employing a lower repetition and a conventional compressor.
The oscillatory Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) instability of a planar liquid sheet was experimentally investigated in the presence of an axial oscillating gas flow. An experimental system was initiated to study the oscillatory K–H instability. The surface wave growth rates were measured and compared with theoretical results obtained using the authors’ early linear method. Furthermore, in a larger parameter range experimentally studied, it is interesting that there are four different unstable modes: first disordered mode (FDM), second disordered mode (SDM), K–H harmonic unstable mode (KHH) and K–H subharmonic unstable mode (KHS). These unstable modes are determined by the oscillating amplitude, oscillating frequency and liquid inertia force. The frequencies of KHH are equal to the oscillating frequency; the frequency of KHS equals half the oscillating frequency, while the frequencies of FDM and SDM are irregular. By considering the mechanism of instability, the instability regime maps on the relative Weber number versus liquid Weber number (Werel–Wel) and the Weber number ratio versus the oscillating frequency (Werel/Wel–$\varOmega$s2) were plotted. Among these four modes, KHS is the most unexpected: the frequency of this mode is not equal to the oscillating frequency, but the surface wave can also couple with the oscillating gas flow. Linear instability theory was applied to divide the parameter range between the different unstable modes. According to linear instability theory, K–H and parametric unstable regions both exist. However, note that all four modes (KHH, KHS, FDM and SDM) corresponded primarily to the K–H unstable region obtained from the theoretical analysis. Nevertheless, the parametric unstable mode was also observed when the oscillating frequency and amplitude were relatively low, and the liquid inertia force was relatively high. The surface wave amplitude was small but regular, and the evolution of this wave was similar to that of Faraday waves. The wave oscillating frequency was half that of the surface wave.
The resurgence and outbreaks of mumps occur frequently in many countries worldwide in recent years, even in countries with high vaccination coverage. In this study, a descriptive and spatiotemporal clustering analysis at the township level was conducted to explore the dynamic spatiotemporal aggregation and epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Wuhan. During 2005 and 2019, there were 40 685 cases reported in Wuhan, with an average annual morbidity of 28.11 per 100 000 populations. The morbidity showed a fluctuating tendency, and peaked in 2010 and 2018. Bimodal seasonality was found, with a large peak between May and July, and a mild peak from November to January in the following year. Male students aged 5–9-year-old were the main risk group of mumps infection. Significant global spatial auto-correlation was detected except in 2007, 2009 and 2015. The spatial and temporal scan statistics indicated that the hot-spots mainly located at the western and southern areas of Wuhan with variations almost every year. Our findings could assist the public health authorities to develop and improve targeted health strategies, and allocate health resources rationally.
To meet the increasing communication demands, the satellites need to be equipped with the high-accuracy and large-aperture antennas. One of the effective methods to construct the modular antennas with ultra-high accuracy and ultra-large aperture is on-orbit assembly technology. During the on-orbit assembly missions, the assembly error is a key factor to affect the surface accuracy of the modular antennas. This paper studies the node design of each module and the assembly error analysis of the modular antennas. A design method of the module nodes is presented with consideration of the assembly gap between two modules. Meanwhile, a soft connection mechanism is designed to ensure the mobility among the assembly modules. To investigate the transmission law of the assembly errors, an analytical model of assembly error is derived based on the exponential product method. In order to establish the deformation surface with rotation and displacement assembly errors, an error ball concept is proposed by the analytical model. To decrease the assembly errors, the actuators are installed among some modules. Moreover, an adjustment method is proposed to obtain the adjustment amounts of actuators. Finally, the correctness of analytical model and the effectiveness of the adjustment method are demonstrated by the numerical simulations.
Daqingshan is located in the northwestern North China Craton where late Neoarchaean supracrustal rocks occur widely, but where magmatic zircon ages have rarely been reported for plutonic rocks. In this study, we report SIMS U–Pb zircon ages and Hf isotope, whole-rock element and Nd isotope compositions for 12 magmatic samples, including TTG, quartz monzonitic and monzogranitic gneisses, and meta-gabbroic and dioritic rocks. They have magmatic zircon ages of 2530–2469 Ma; some samples have ages of <2.48 Ga likely influenced by late Palaeoproterozoic tectonothermal events, making their ages less reliable. TTG gneisses have low Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, with whole-rock ϵNd(t) and in situ magmatic zircon ϵHf(t) values of +1.2 to +2.4 and −1.1 to +6.2, respectively. Quartz monzonite and monzogranite gneisses and gabbroic to dioritic rocks have similar Nd–Hf isotope compositions to the TTG gneisses. The absence of zircon >2.6 Ga in the early Precambrian rocks suggests that the Sanggan Group may have formed in an oceanic environment, whereas the TTG rocks formed as a result of partial melting of the basaltic rocks of the Sanggan Group under relatively low-pressure conditions. Combined with previous studies, the main conclusions are that in the Daqingshan area, late Neoarchaean magmatism was widespread, the late Mesoarchaean – early Neoarchaean was an important period of juvenile continental crustal growth, and the late Neoarchaean supracrustal and plutonic rocks most likely formed in an arc environment. These are common signatures for Neoarchaean crustal evolution throughout much of the North China Craton, and also globally.
Extensive evidence has demonstrated that bilinguals non-selectively activate lexicons of both languages when reading or hearing words in one language. Here, we further investigated the electrophysiological roles of cross-linguistic orthography and phonology in the processing of L2 spoken words in unbalanced Chinese (L1)–English (L2) bilinguals in a cross-modal situation. Relative to unrelated control, the recognition of auditory L2 words showed behavioral interference effects when paired with orthographic or phonological neighbors of the correct translations of L2 words. Moreover, the lexical effects were also exhibited in the electrophysiological data, as reflected by marginally less positive late positive component (500–800 ms) amplitudes in the frontal region. Importantly, the orthographic rather than phonological translation neighbor condition elicited less negative N400 (300–500 ms) amplitudes in the parietal–occipital regions, suggesting that this orthographic translation neighbor condition facilitated the co-activation of spoken L2 words. Taken together, these findings indicate that cross-linguistic orthographic and phonological activation have different temporal dynamics with both bottom-up parallel cross-linguistic activation and the top-down inhibitory control mechanism governing the two-language lexical organization in L2 spoken word recognition.
Studies of ‘food globalisation’ have traced the dispersal of cereals across prehistoric Eurasia. The degree to which these crops were accompanied by knowledge of soil and water preparation is less well known, however. The authors use stable isotope and archaeobotanical analyses to trace long-term trends in cultivation practices on the Loess Plateau (6000 BC–AD 1900). The results indicate that ancient farmers cultivated grains originating in South-west Asia and used distinct strategies for different species. Barley was integrated into pre-existing practices, while wheat was grown using novel soil and water management strategies. These distinct approaches suggest that the spread of prehistoric crops and knowledge about them varied by local context.
An experimental investigation of the stereocamera's systematic error is carried out to optimize three-dimensional (3-D) dust observation on the HL-2A tokamak. It is found that a larger 3-D region occupied by all calibration points is able to reduce the 3-D reconstruction systematic error of the stereocamera. In addition, the 3-D reconstruction is the most accurate around the region where the calibration points are located. Based on these experimental results, the design of the stereocamera on the HL-2A tokamak is presented, and a set of practical procedures to optimize the 3-D reconstruction accuracy of the stereocamera are proposed.
High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) contribute to dough elasticity and bread baking quality in wheat. In this study, wheat varieties were classified based on their HMW-GS composition into three groups: 1Dx5 (5 + 10, Gaoyou 8901, Xinmai 28, Xinmai 19, Xinmai 26 and Jinbaoyin), 1Dx2 (2 + 12, Zhoumai 24, Xinmai 9 and Yumai) and 1Dx4 (4 + 12, Aikang 58). Sequence analysis showed that 1Dx-GY8901, 1Dx-XM28, 1Dx-XM19 and 1Dx-XM26 were similar to the 1Dx5 gene and clustered on the same branch, while 1Dx-AK58, 1Dx-ZM24, 1Dx-JBY, 1Dx-YM, 1Dx-XM9 and 1Dx-JBY were more similar to the 1Dx2 gene and clustered on the same branch with 1Dx.2.2. There was a mutation of Ser to Cys at position S2, for an extra Cys in the repeat regions of 1Dx-XM19, 1Dx-XM26, 1Dx-XM28 and 1Dx-GY8901. The wheat HMW-GS genes exhibited similar percentages of α-helix, extended strand, β-turn and random coil structure, with ranges of 13.33–13.59, 4.77–5.78, 7.08–9.18 and 72.3–73.94%, respectively. Sequence conservation and the composition of HMW-GS subunits were also analysed for a series of strong gluten wheat varieties, Xinmai 9 (1, 7 + 8, 2 + 12), Xinmai 19 (1, 7 + 9, 5 + 10), Xinmai 26 (1, 7 + 8, 5 + 10) and Xinmai 28 (1, 7 + 9, 5 + 10). The results of this work should facilitate future breeding efforts and provide the theoretical basis for wheat quality improvement.
Despite increasing knowledge on the neuroimaging patterns of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in non-clinical populations, studies using whole-brain machine learning to identify connectome-based neuromarkers of ED symptomatology are absent. This study examined the association of connectivity within and between large-scale functional networks with specific symptomatic behaviors and cognitions using connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM).
CPM with ten-fold cross-validation was carried out to probe functional networks that were predictive of ED-associated symptomatology, including body image concerns, binge eating, and compensatory behaviors, within the discovery sample of 660 participants. The predictive ability of the identified networks was validated using an independent sample of 821 participants.
The connectivity predictive of body image concerns was identified within and between networks implicated in cognitive control (frontoparietal and medial frontal), reward sensitivity (subcortical), and visual perception (visual). Crucially, the set of connections in the positive network related to body image concerns identified in one sample was generalized to predict body image concerns in an independent sample, suggesting the replicability of this effect.
These findings point to the feasibility of using the functional connectome to predict ED symptomatology in the general population and provide the first evidence that functional interplay among distributed networks predicts body shape/weight concerns.