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It has not been well established whether dietary folate intake reduces the risk of diabetes development. We aimed to clarify the prospective association between dietary folate intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among 7333 Korean adults aged 40 years or older who were included in the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. Dietary folate intake was estimated from all 106 food items listed on a FFQ, not including folate intake from supplements. Two different measurements of dietary folate intake were used: the baseline consumption and the average consumption from baseline until just before the end of follow-up. The association between folate intake and T2D risk was determined through a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator controlling for potential confounders. For 29 745 person years, 319 cases of diabetes were ascertained. In multivariable analyses, dietary folate intake was inversely associated with risk of T2D for women, not for men. For women, the incidence rate ratio of diabetes in the third tertile compared with the first tertile was 0·57 (95 % CI 0·38–0·87, Pfor trend=0·0085) in the baseline consumption model and 0·64 (95 % CI 0·43–0·95, Pfor trend=0·0244) in the average consumption model. These inverse associations was found in both normal fasting blood glucose group and impaired fasting glucose group among women. Among non-users of multinutrients and vitamin supplements, the significant inverse association remained. Thus, higher dietary intake of folate is prospectively associated with lower risk of diabetes for women.
Conventional Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) was modified by adding up a small amount of SiOx, using co-sputtering technique from multiple targets. The SiOx content was gradually increased by increasing the power applied to SiOx target, up to 8 volume percent. The sheet resistance of SiOx-containing GST exponentially increased, when the room-temperature-deposited samples were annealed at 300 °C. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that no SiOx particulates were formed, which was confirmed by Gattan image filtering. It was indicated by x-ray diffraction patterns that the grain size of SiOx-containing GST is smaller than normal GST with lattice locally distorted at its crystalline state, suggesting that molecular SiOx is homogeneously distributed throughout the GST matrix. We observed that the crystallization temperature of SiOx-containing GST is gradually elevated by increasing the SiOx content, while the melting point decreased. These observations led to the reset current reduction, which is a critical requirement for the high density PRAM.
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