MgSiO3 - rich perovskite is expected to dominate the Earth's lower mantle (pressures > 25 GPa), with iron and aluminum as significant substituents. The incorporation of trivalent ions, M3+, may occur by two competing mechanisms: MgA+ SiB = MA + MB and SiB = AlB + 0.5 VO. Phase synthesis studies show that both substitutions do occur, and the nonstoichiometric or defect substitution is prevalent along the MgSiO3 - MgAlO2.5 join. Oxide melt solution calorimetry has been used to compare the energetics of both substitutions. The stoichiometric substitution, represented by the reaction 0.95 MgSiO3 (perovskite) + 0.05 Al2O3 (corundum) = Mg0.95Al0.10Si0.95O3 (perovskite), has an enthalpy of -0.8±2.2 kJ/mol. The nonstoichiometric reaction, 0.90 MgSiO3 (perovskite) + 0.10 MgO (rocksalt) + 0.05 Al2O3 (corundum) = MgSi0.9Al0.1O2.95 (perovskite) has a small positive enthalpy of 8.5±4.6 kJ/mol. The defect substitution is not prohibitive in enthalpy, entropy, or volume, is favored in perovskite coexisting with magnesiowüstite, and may significantly affect the elasticity, rheology and water retention of silicate perovskite in the Earth.