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Credibility and trustworthiness are the bedrock upon which any science is built. The strength of these foundations has been increasingly questioned across the sciences as instances of research misconduct and mounting concerns over the prevalence of detrimental research practices have been identified. Consequently, the purpose of this article is to encourage our scientific community to positively and proactively engage in efforts that foster a healthy and robust industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. We begin by advancing six defining principles that we believe reflect the values of robust science and offer criteria for evaluating proposed efforts to change scientific practices. Recognizing that the contemporary scientific enterprise is a complex and diverse network of actors and institutions, we then conclude by identifying 12 stakeholders who play important roles in achieving a culture of robust science in I-O psychology and offer recommendations for actions we can take as members of these groups to strengthen our science.
The persistence and movement of sethoxydim residues were determined in the top 45 cm of an Estherville sandy loam (sl), Port Byron silt loam (sil), and Webster clay loam (cl) in the field. Analysis of sethoxydim residues simultaneously quantified parent and eight metabolites by conversion to a common volatile end product, 3-[2(ethylsulfonyl)propyl]-pentanedioic acid dimethyl ester, followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) and a flame photometric detector. Recovery of residues from soil spiked with 100 μg kg-1 was 86 ± 21%. Residues remaining in soil 21 days after treatment (DAT) in 1989 were 37, 51, and 29% of the applied sethoxydim in the sl, sil, and cl, respectively, while in 1990, 86, 52, and 24% remained in the sl, sil, and cl, respectively. Alachlor remaining 21 DAT in 1989 was 66, 52, and 65% of that applied in the sl, sil, and cl, respectively, while in 1990, it was 16, 13, and 100% in the sl, sil, and cl, respectively. Atrazine had the greatest % of applied chemical remaining 21 DAT in 1989: 100, 71, and 73% in the sl, sil, and cl, respectively. of the atrazine applied in 1990, atrazine remaining 21 DAT was 87% in the sl, 42% in the sil, and 100% in the cl. Over all soils and years, the amount of total sethoxydim residues remaining 137 DAT was the least of the three herbicides. In terms of leaching, sethoxydim residues showed least movement, with minimal detections below 0 to 15 cm. Although sethoxydim appears to be advantageous over alachlor and atrazine in terms of potential impact on ground water quality, additional information regarding composition of the detected residues is needed to better assess its environmental impact.
In an effort to investigate the stability of the surface and hetero-interface of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs during high temperature device processing steps, AlGaN/GaN HEMT samples were subjected to temperatures from 650°C to 1150°C for a period of 30 seconds prior to processing. Hall and photoluminescence measurements were performed on samples before and after temperature stressing. The samples annealed at 700°C and 1150°C were then processed, and electrical parametric data were collected during and after processing. Large increases in HEMT Schottky gate diode reverse leakage current are observed at higher pre-process annealing temperatures, while the low-field mobility decreases.
Excitons bound to neutral donors in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum wells were observed by high resolution resonant excitation photoluminescence, and temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements. Changes in the binding energy of excitons are observed when the donors are located in the center of the well, at the edge of the well, or in the center of the barrier. The variations in these binding energies are reported as a function of well size from 75–350Å. The binding energies increased as the well size was reduced to about 100Å, with further reductions in well size they decreased.
Light-hole free excitons bound to neutral donors were observed in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum wells. The transitions were observed, using selective excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy, in the energy region between the light-hole and heavy-hole free exciton transitions where no other intrinsic transitions exist. The neutral donor-bound heavy-hole free-exciton transitions were also observed when the light-hole bound exciton transitions were observed. Quantum well structures which showed no evidence of a heavy-hole donor bound exciton also showed no evidence of a light-hole donor bound exciton.
Free to bound transitions, free hole to bound electron, have also been observed in the AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum wells. The diamagnetic shift of these transitions was used to distinguish them from excitonic transitions.
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