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Online gambling emerged in the 1990s in the midst of a process of market liberalisation. Here, scholars have argued that the gambling industry actively seeks state regulation to authorise and legitimate its activities. Why then, since the emergence of the online gambling industry, have trade associations continually sought to develop responsible gambling codes of conduct? In this paper, I address this puzzle by documenting and tracing the development and deployment of responsible gambling codes of conduct by trade associations from the emergence of the online gambling industry in the early 1990s and through processes of increased market liberalisation at the national level and market integration at the European Union level. I argue that online gambling trade associations deploy responsible gambling codes of conduct at particular moments of opportunity to shape their members’ external legal and regulatory environment and to reproduce and embed a particular understanding of how gambling-related risks should be regulated.
The priority given to the development of research skills during doctrinal legal education often neglects the importance of equipping PhD students with the pedagogical skills necessary to fulfill their important educational role as academics. Thus, in many instances there is a significant gap in the requisite skill base that PhD students acquire when they complete their doctrinal education. This paper outlines a first step that has been taken to address this deficiency in postgraduate legal education in Ireland. The PhD community of the University College Dublin (UCD) School of Law convened an internal Syllabus Design Workshop in April 2010 in order to provide doctrinal students with an opportunity to design a university module and to explore the issues which arise in undertaking such an exercise. The first part of this paper outlines how the workshop was conceived and convened, and provides an account of the considerations that each student had to take into account in the design of a syllabus. From here, we address the content of the workshop and reflect upon some of the important issues which were raised. Finally, we offer a number of recommendations in relation to the development of doctrinal students as future educators. By highlighting the importance of uniting research and teaching, it is hoped that this paper will contribute to postgraduate legal education in Ireland, and also internationally.
This paper examines the pattern and frequency of implementation of environmental strategies and the use of psychotropic medication in the management of patients with delirium in an acute hospital setting.
The study involved 46 consecutive referrals to a consultation psychiatry service each of whom met ICD–10 criteria for delirium. Patients were subdivided into hyperactive, hypoactive and mixed subtypes of delirium and assessed regarding severity of delirium, the use of psychotropic medication prior to consultation and the implementation of environmental measures in their management.
Mean age was 60.1 years. Thirty per cent of patients were of the hyperactive subtype, 24% hypoactive and 46% mixed. Psychotropic medication was given to 56.5% prior to consultation and this is significantly associated with severity of delirium and in particular, with hyperactive delirium subtype. Of eight environmental strategies only four were instituted in over 50% of the patients prior to consultation. The application of these strategies was associated with overall severity of delirium, agitation, mood lability and sleep-wake cycle disturbance. It was not significantly associated with severity of disorientation or with disturbed perception/thinking.
Simple environmental strategies such as limiting changes in staff, minimising noise levels and involving relatives in re-orientation are frequently overlooked in the management of patients with delirium. Our study suggests that the implementation of environmental strategies occurs primarily in response to behavioural challenges rather than to limit the core features of delirium.
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