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We have designed and grown a series of quantum dot semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (QD-SESAMs) for a range of operating wavelengths, incorporating innovative design and processing features to optimise the device performance. Using a range of reflectivity studies, ellipsometric measurements and both time-integrated and time-resolved spectroscopic studies, we have conducted detailed investigations of device performance. Extensive modelling work of dielectric multilayers has been undertaken which supports our experimental findings and allows us to understand and design novel structures in order to improve and tailor device characteristics, including dielectric capping and non-normal incidence. We demonstrate samples designed for operation with the higher excited-states of the QDs which produced a self-starting train of mode-locked pulses with a temporal duration of 200 ps at a repetition rate of 78 MHz in a Nd:YVO4 solid-state laser. We also present SESAMs incorporating electronically coupled QD bilayers, allowing long wavelength operation.
It has been suggested that people with psychopathic disorders lack
empathy because they have deficits in processing distress cues (e.g.
fearful facial expressions).
To investigate brain function when individuals with psychopathy and a
control group process facial emotion.
Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging we compared six
people scoring ⩾25 on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Revised and nine
non-psychopathic healthy volunteers during an implicit emotion processing
task using fearful, happy and neutral faces.
The psychopathy group showed significantly less activation than the
control group in fusiform and extrastriate cortices when processing both
facial emotions. However, emotion type affected response pattern. Both
groups increased fusiform and extrastriate cortex activation when
processing happy faces compared with neutral faces, but this increase was
significantly smaller in the psychopathy group. In contrast, when
processing fearful faces compared with neutral faces, the control group
showed increased activation but the psychopathy group decreased
activation in the fusiform gyrus.
People with psychopathy have biological differences from controls when
processing facial emotion, and the pattern of response differs according
to emotion type.
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