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Surface sediments from a 160-km stretch of the River Clyde, Scotland, were analysed for persistent organic pollutants to investigate distribution, source and environmental effect. Glasgow's urban tributaries polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ranged from 2.3 to 4226mgkg–1, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) 72 to 37879mgkg–1 and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) 3 to 809μgkg–1, which were more polluted than the upper River Clyde PAH that ranged from 0.1 to 42mgkg–1, TPH 3 to 260mgkg–1 and PCB 2 to 147μgkg–1. Intermediate values of the inner Clyde estuary PAH ranging from 0.6 to 30mgkg–1, and PCB ranging from 5 to 130μgkg–1, were attributed to point sources and sediment transfer from the urban tributaries. Comparison with sediment quality criteria suggested possible adverse effects on aquatic biota. PAH isomeric ratios confirmed a pyrolytic source throughout the Clyde and benzo[a]pyrene/benzo[g,h,i]perylene ratios >0.6 confirmed that upper, urban and estuarine domains all to a lesser or greater extent accumulated PAH from traffic emissions. The degree of chlorination determined from PCB homologues differed in each of the three domains, suggesting variable source or that the process aerobic/anaerobic degradation varied in each of the three domains. The anthropogenic impact of the city of Glasgow can be quantified in that the urban tributary sediment mean values were 60 (PAH), 33 (TPH) and 11 (PCB) times higher than the rural upper Clyde counterpart.
Novel ultrafine eutectic composites containing structural and spatial heterogeneities have been systematically developed in an Mg–Cu–Zn ternary system. Microstructural investigations of the ultrafine eutectic composites revealed that the bimodal eutectic structure consists of a mixture of cellular-type fine (α-Mg + MgZn2) and anomalous-type coarse (α-Mg + MgZn2 + MgCuZn) eutectic structures. An Mg72Cu5Zn23 alloy composed of the bimodal eutectic structure without micron-scale α-Mg dendrites presents a strong improvement of yield strength up to 455 MPa with a decent plastic strain of 5%. The rotation of the bimodal eutectic colony along the interfaces is considered to be an effective way to dissipate the stress localization thus enhancing the macroscopic plasticity.
Zn deficiency may be widespread in Asian countries such as South Korea. However, dietary habits have changed in response to rapid economic growth and globalization. Zn nutrition in South Koreans has therefore been assessed during a period (1969–1998) of unprecedented economic growth.
Design and methods
Cross-sectional food consumption data from the Korean National Nutrition Survey Reports (KNNSR) of South Korea at four separate time points (1969, 1978, 1988 and 1998) were used to calculate Zn, Ca and phytate intakes using various food composition tables, databases and literature values. Nutrient values in local foods were cited from their analysed values.
Average Zn intake was 5·8, 4·8 and 5·3 mg/d for 1969, 1978 and 1988 respectively, increasing to 7·3 mg/d in 1998 (73 % of the Korean Dietary Reference Intake). The phytate:Zn molar ratio decreased from 21 to 8 during the study period. Dietary Zn depletion due to marked decreases in cereal consumption, particularly barley which has a low Zn bioavailability, was counterbalanced by marked increases in the consumption of meat and fish, which are also Zn-rich foods. Reduced phytate consumption coincident with increased Zn intake suggests that Zn bioavailability also improved, particularly by 1998.
Although total Zn intake was not greatly affected over the initial period of economic growth in South Korea (1969–1988), Zn contributions from different food sources changed markedly and both Zn intake and potential bioavailability were improved by 1998. The study may have implications for Zn nutrition in other Asian countries currently experiencing rapid economic growth.
Thin Copper films have been deposited on various substrates by the reduction of copper bis-hexafluoroacetylacetonate, Cu(HFA)2, with hydrogen to investigate the characteristics of the films made at 2–10 torr of total pressure, substrate temperatures of 280–400 °C and precursor temperatures of 55–90 °C. Under the conditions investigated, the highest growth rate was 650 Å/min. and the resistivity of the films was routinely near 2.0 μΩ-cm at 5000 Å or more thickness. Film growth rate depended on precursor concentration and substrate temperature. RBS and AES analysis indicate that the copper deposited at 310–400°C is highly pure. SEM photographs revealed that different structures form depending on substrate kind, the deposition conditions and the deposition time. The surface roughness of the films increased with increasing thickness. The reflectivity of the copper films depends on their thickness and decreases as the grain size increases. The grain sizes in the films were about 0.1–2.0 μm and are correlated with film thickness.
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