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High frequency of low birth weight (LBW) is observed in rural compared with urban Indian women. Since maternal BMI is known to be associated with pregnancy outcomes, the present study aimed to investigate factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy of urban and rural South Indian women.
Prospective observational cohort.
A hospital-based study conducted at an urban and a rural health centre in Karnataka State.
Pregnant women (n 843) aged 18–40 years recruited in early pregnancy from whom detailed sociodemographic, environmental, anthropometric and dietary intake information was collected.
A high proportion of low BMI (32 v. 26 %, P<0·000) and anaemia (48 v. 23 %, P<0·000) was observed in the rural v. the urban cohort. Rural women were younger, had lower body weight, tended to be shorter and less educated. They lived in poor housing conditions, had less access to piped water and good sanitation, used unrefined fuel for cooking and had lower standard of living score. The age (β=0·21, 95 % CI 0·14, 0·29), education level of their spouse (β=1·36, 95 % CI 0·71, 2·71) and fat intake (β=1·24, 95 % CI 0·20, 2·28) were positively associated with BMI in urban women.
Our findings indicate that risk factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy are different in rural and urban settings. It is important to study population-specific risk factors in relation to perinatal health.
To examine whether nutrient and food intakes among South Asian adult immigrants differ by length of residence in the USA.
Cross-sectional analysis to examine differences in nutrient and food intakes by length of residence in the USA. Dietary data were collected using an interviewer-administered, culturally appropriate FFQ, while self-reported length of residence was assessed using a questionnaire and modelled as tertiles.
The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study.
Eight hundred and seventy-four South Asians (mean age=55 (sd 9) years; 47 % women; range of length of residence in the USA=2–58 years), part of the baseline examination of the MASALA study.
Intakes of fat, including saturated and trans fats, dietary cholesterol and n-6 fatty acids, were directly associated with length of residence, while intakes of energy, carbohydrate, glycaemic index and load, protein, dietary fibre, folate and K were inversely associated with length of residence (P trend <0·05). A longer length of residence in the USA was also associated with higher intakes of alcoholic beverages, mixed dishes including pizza and pasta, fats and oils, and lower intakes of beans and lentils, breads, grains and flour products, milk and dairy products, rice, starchy vegetables and sugar, candy and jam (P for differences across groups <0·05).
Length of residence in the USA influences diet and nutrient intakes among South Asian adult immigrants and should be considered when investigating and planning dietary interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk.
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