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Our goal was to identify the demographic profile of the people living homeless with mental illness in Lisboa, Portugal, and their relationship with the national healthcare system. We also tried to understand which factors contribute to the number and duration of psychiatric admissions among these homeless people.
We used a cross-sectional design, collecting data for 4 years among homeless people, in Lisboa, Portugal, that were referred as possible psychiatric patients to Centro Hospitalar Psiquiátrico de Lisboa (CHPL). In total, we collected data from 500 homeless people, then cross-checked these people in our CHPL hospital electronic database and obtained 467 patient matches.
The most common psychiatric diagnosis in our sample was drug abuse (34%), followed by alcohol abuse (33%), personality disorder (24%), and acute stress reaction (23%). Sixty-two percent of our patients had multiple diagnoses, a subgroup with longer follow-ups, more psychiatric hospitalizations, and longer psychiatric hospitalizations. The prevalence of psychotic disorders was high: organic psychosis (17%), schizophrenia (15%), psychosis not otherwise specified (14%), and schizoaffective disorder (11%), that combined altogether were present in more than half (57%) of our homeless patients.
The people living homeless with multiple diagnoses have higher mental health needs and worse determinants of general health. An ongoing effort is needed to identify and address this subgroup of homeless people with mental illness to improve their treatment and outcomes.
The main propose of this study is the cross-cultural validation of the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Education Scale among Portugal and Brazil samples, through the study of measurement model invariance. Participated in this study, two independent samples, one with 616 Portuguese students, of the 2nd and 3rd basic grade of public school, aged between 9 and 18 years old and another with 450 Brazilian students, from 1st, 2nd and 3rd middle grade of public and private school, aged between 14 and 18 years old. The results support the suitability of the model (three factors, each one with four items), showing an adequate fit to the data in each sample (Portugal: χ2 = 203.8, p = .001, df = 51, SRMR = .062, NNFI = .926, CFI = .943, RMSEA = .070, RMSEA 90% IC = .060–.080; Brazil: χ2 = 173.7, p = .001, df = 51, SRMR = .052, NNFI = .940, CFI = .954, RMSEA = .073, RMSEA 90% IC = .061–.085), as well valid cross-cultural invariance among Portuguese e Brazilian samples (∆CFI ≤ .01). Those findings allow us to conclude that scale can be used to measure the basic psychological needs in physical education in Portugal and in Brazil.
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