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To comprehensively study the physical properties of inductively coupled plasma (ICP), a finite element method (FEM) simulation model of ICP is developed using the well-established COMSOL software. To benchmark the validation of the FEM model, two key physical parameters, the electron density and the electron temperature of the ICP plasma, are precisely measured by the state-of-the-art laser Thomson scattering diagnostic approach. For low-pressure plasma such as ICP, the local pressure in the generator tube is difficult to measure directly. The local gas pressure in the ICP tube has been calibrated by comparing the experimental and simulation results of the maximum electron density. And on this basis, the electron density and electron temperature of ICP under the same gas pressure and absorbed power have been compared by experiments and simulations. The good agreement between the experimental and simulation data of these two key physical parameters fully verifies the validity of the ICP FEM simulation model. The experimental verification of the ICP FEM simulation model lays a foundation for further study of the distribution of various physical quantities and their variation with pressure and absorption power, which is beneficial for improving the level of ICP-related processes.
Yang L, Ruan L-M, Ye H-H, Cui H-B, Mu Q-T, Lou Y-R, Ji Y-X, Li W-Z, Sun D-H, Chen X-B. Depression is associated with lower circulating endothelial progenitor cells and increased inflammatory markers.
Objective: To test the hypothesis that depression status in subjects without cardiovascular diseases (CVD) or diabetes is associated with depletion of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and impaired endothelial function.
Method: Thirty depressive persons with the first episode of depression (case group) diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and 30 healthy people (control group) were investigated. The depression status was estimated using Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression from which the criteria of depression are determined to be >21 score. EPCs labeled with CD34-ECD, CD133-phycoerythrin and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR)-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibodies were counted by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of patients and control subjects. Mononuclear cells that were positive for CD34/KDR, CD133/KDR and CD34/CD133/KDR within the lymphocyte population were characterised as different phenotypes of EPCs.
Results: There were no significant differences in baseline clinical characteristics between patients and healthy individuals (all p > 0.05). However, patients with depression had significantly lower levels of circulating CD34+CD133+KDR+ EPCs (132.20 ± 17.27 vs. 225.93 ± 9.88, p = 0.000) and endothelial colony-forming units (26.40 ± 3.79 vs. 36.60 ± 2.88, p = 0.000) than that of healthy subjects. Furthermore, CD34+CD133+KDR+ EPCs had a negative correlation with tumour necrosis factor-α (Spearman's ρ = 0.433, p = 0.000) and interleukin-6 (Spearman's ρ = 0.441, p = 0.032).
Conclusion: Our result shows that depression was associated with lower levels of circulating EPCs, which may contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
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