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Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern has been associated with numerous health benefits in non-communicable diseases, including obesity management. However, the associations of the Mediterranean Diet with weight loss maintenance remain to be evaluated.
We analyzed data from 500 participants (61% women) of the MedWeight study. Eligible volunteers were men and women 18–65 years old, reporting an intentional weight loss of at least 10%, starting from a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Based on their current weight, participants were characterized as maintainers (current weight ≤ 90% of maximum weight), or regainers (current weight > 95% of maximum weight). Socio-demographics, lifestyle measurements and weight history were recorded. Dietary intake was assessed by 2 telephone 24-hour recalls. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet was assessed with the MedDietScore (range 0–55, greater scores showing higher adherence). Physical activity levels were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form. Results are expressed as means ± SD, frequencies (%) or Odds Ratio [OR; 95%Confidence Interval].
Compared to regainers (31%), maintainers were younger (31.4 ± 10.0 vs. 36.6 ± 10.8 years, p < 0.001), had lower BMI (25.7 ± 4.3 vs. 31.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2, p < 0.001), and had greater initial body weight loss (25.5 ± 8.6% vs. 18.4 ± 6.9%, p < 0.001). Sex and years of formal education were not significantly different between maintainers and regainers (p > 0.05). Being in the highest MedDietScore quintile (vs. the lowest) was associated with 91% higher odds of being a maintainer [crude OR = 1.91; 1.05–3.45]. This association remained significant after adjusting for sex, age, physical activity level (METŸminutes/week) and energy intake (kcal/day) [adjusted OR = 2.01; 1.05–3.83].
Higher adherence to the Mediterranean Diet was independently associated with 2-fold increased likelihood of weight loss maintenance. Our results highlight the favorable effects of a prudent dietary pattern in long-term obesity management, as well as novel targets for diet planning during weight loss maintenance.
Weight loss maintenance is crucial for obesity management, yet optimal dietary patterns for this period are not established. We aimed to explore the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and weight loss maintenance. Sample includes 565 adults (62 % women) of the MedWeight study. Eligible volunteers were those reporting intentional weight loss of ≥10 %, starting from a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, over 12 months prior to enrolment. Based on current weight, participants were characterised as maintainers (≤90 % maximum weight) or regainers (>95 % maximum weight). Socio-demographics and weight history were recorded. Dietary intake was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls within 10 d and analysed in energy, macronutrient and food group intakes. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Score (MedDietScore) (range 0–55, greater scores showing higher adherence). Protein intake was higher in maintainers than in regainers (P < 0·001). When MedDietScore quartiles were considered, a linear trend for weight loss maintenance was revealed (P < 0·05). After adjustment for basic demographic characteristics, being in the third or fourth quartile of the MedDietScore (v. first) was associated with 2·30 (95 % CI 1·29, 4·09) and 1·88 (95 % CI 1·10, 3·22) increased odds of maintenance. Regarding individual MedDietScore components, only fruit intake is associated with increased odds for maintenance (1·03 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·06)). The leave-one-out approach revealed that at least six MedDietScore components were essential for the observed relationship. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with 2-fold increased likelihood of weight loss maintenance. Future studies should replicate these findings in non-Mediterranean populations as well.
The Antikythera Mechanism is the most sophisticated extant ancient astronomical instrument and analogue computer known and was assembled sometime between 150 and 100 BCE, almost a century after the death of Archimedes. The mechanism has a great educational potential as it appeals to inquiring minds as an astonishing artefact of science and technology. The latest research findings reveal significant cultural and social functions in its operations. This astonishing astronomical instrument has a clear interdisciplinary valueand it has that it may be used as an educational medium, to engage the general public, and especially to attract students both to/from exact sciences and to/from the humanities. The astronomical and technical knowledge embedded in the mechanism can also be used to introduce some aspects of modern science through the unknown technological achievements of Hellenic antiquity.
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