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We honour a great man and a true giant. Lodewyk H.S. van Mierop (March 31, 1927 – October 17, 2021), known as Bob, was not only a Paediatric Cardiologist but also a dedicated Scientist. He made many significant and ground-breaking contributions to the fields of cardiac anatomy and embryology. He was devoted as a teacher, spending many hours with medical students, Residents, and Fellows, all of whom appreciated his regularly scheduled educational sessions. Those of us who were fortunate to know and spend time with him will always remember his great mind, his willingness to share his knowledge, and his ability to encourage spirited and fruitful discussions. His life was most productive, and he will long be remembered by many through his awesome and exemplary scientific contributions.
His legacy continues to influence the current and future generations of surgeons and all providers of paediatric and congenital cardiac care through the invaluable archive he established at University of Florida in Gainesville: The University of Florida van Mierop Heart Archive. Undoubtedly, with these extraordinary contributions to the fields of cardiac anatomy and embryology, which were way ahead of his time, Professor van Mierop was a true giant in Paediatric Cardiology. The invaluable archive he established at University of Florida in Gainesville, The University of Florida van Mierop Heart Archive, has been instrumental in teaching medical students, Residents, Medical Fellows, and Surgical Fellows. Only a handful of similar archives exist across the globe, and these archives are the true legacy of giants such as Dr. van Mierop. We have an important obligation to leave no stone unturned to continue to preserve these archives for the future generations of surgeons, physicians, all providers of paediatric and congenital cardiac care, and, most importantly, our patients.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Patients with MDD have high rates of comorbidity with mental and physical conditions, one of which is chronic pain. Chronic pain conditions themselves are also associated with significant disability, and the large number of patients with MDD who have chronic pain drives high levels of disability and compounds healthcare burden. The management of depression in patients who also have chronic pain can be particularly challenging due to underlying mechanisms that are common to both conditions, and because many patients with these conditions are already taking multiple medications. For these reasons, healthcare providers may be reluctant to treat such patients. The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of MDD and comorbid psychiatric and medical conditions such as anxiety, substance use disorder, and cardiovascular disease; however, comorbid chronic pain is not addressed. In this article, we provide an overview of the pathophysiological and clinical overlap between depression and chronic pain and review evidence-based pharmacological recommendations in current treatment guidelines for MDD and for chronic pain. Based on clinical experience with MDD patients with comorbid pain, we recommend rapidly and aggressively treating depression according to CANMAT treatment guidelines, using antidepressant medications with analgesic properties, while addressing pain with first-line pharmacotherapy as treatment for depression is optimized. We review options for treating pain symptoms that remain after response to antidepressant treatment is achieved.
We interviewed 1,208 healthcare workers with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests between October 2020 and June 2021 to determine likely exposure sources. Overall, 689 (57.0%) had community exposures (479 from household members), 76 (6.3%) had hospital exposures (64 from other employees including 49 despite masking), 11 (0.9%) had community and hospital exposures, and 432 (35.8%) had no identifiable source of exposure.
The essence of so-called heterotaxy is the potential disharmony between the arrangement of the bronchuses, abdominal organs, and the atrial appendages. Accurate description of the heart, however, can only be provided by specific description of these features, all of which are readily discernible in the clinical setting. We argue that, when accurate description of the atrial and visceral arrangement is provided, along with appropriate description of the intracardiac findings, no further accuracy is gained by suggesting that an individual heart is “heterotaxic”.
Tree-rings representing annual dates from live and deadwood Pinus flexilis at ten sites across the central Great Basin (~38°N) yielded a cumulative record across 4002 years (1983 BC–AD 2019). Individual site chronologies ranged in length from 861–4002 years; all were continuous over their sample depths. Correlations of growth with climate were positive for water relations and mostly negative for summer temperatures. Growth was generally correlated across sites, with the central Nevada stands most distinct. Although growth was low during the Late Holocene Dry Period, variability marked this interval, suggesting that it was not pervasively dry. All sites had low growth during the first half of the Medieval Climate Anomaly, high growth during the mid-interval pluvial, and low growth subsequently. Little synchrony occurred across sites for the early Little Ice Age. After AD 1650, growth was depressed until the early twentieth century. Growth at all sites declined markedly ca. AD 1985, was similar to the lowest growth period of the full records, and indicative of recent severe droughts. A small rebound in growth occurred after ca. AD 2010. A strong signal for Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) occurred in growth response at most sites. The persistence of all stands despite climate variability indicates high resilience of this species.
In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
Understanding place-based contributors to health requires geographically and culturally diverse study populations, but sharing location data is a significant challenge to multisite studies. Here, we describe a standardized and reproducible method to perform geospatial analyses for multisite studies. Using census tract-level information, we created software for geocoding and geospatial data linkage that was distributed to a consortium of birth cohorts located throughout the USA. Individual sites performed geospatial linkages and returned tract-level information for 8810 children to a central site for analyses. Our generalizable approach demonstrates the feasibility of geospatial analyses across study sites to promote collaborative translational research.
Contemporary politics provides numerous examples in which people fail to use critical thinking skills. There are many obstacles to critical thinking including, overconfidence, obsession with fantasies, and disregard for the truth, among others. To help students develop their critical thinking skills, universities need to be sure that critical thinking is being taught and that it is valued. Instructors need to use real-life examples that are relevant to their students’ lives, and teach students to recognize and overcome the many obstacles to critical thinking. Individuals can improve how they think about political issues by listening to diverse viewpoints, becoming informed about political issues, rewarding politicians who compromise to reach a goal, breaking down echo chambers, and valuing evidence-based thinking.
We define critical thinking in several different ways that converge on the same basic idea. It is a combination of skills, attitude, and knowledge. To think critically about any topic, one needs a deep knowledge of the topic and the propensity to apply the appropriate thinking skills. These skills can be taught (and learned) in ways that transfer to different topics, but it is not easy or automatic. Instructors need to teach for transfer deliberately. Personality traits such as a concern for truth, being analytic, and being open to new ideas are some of the traits of critical thinkers. Creativity has been defined as creating something that is unusual and useful. It is a special case of critical thinking. The rules for scientific reasoning, avoiding bias, resisting persuasion, and so on are universal, thus we conclude that although culture is always important, the skills for critical thinking are the same everywhere.
Good scientific research depends on critical thinking at least as much as factual knowledge; psychology is no exception to this rule. And yet, despite the importance of critical thinking, psychology students are rarely taught how to think critically about the theories, methods, and concepts they must use. This book shows students and researchers how to think critically about key topics such as experimental research, statistical inference, case studies, logical fallacies, and ethical judgments. Using updated research findings and new insights, this volume provides a comprehensive overview of what critical thinking is and how to teach it in psychology. Written by leading experts in critical thinking in psychology, each chapter contains useful pedagogical features, such as critical-thinking questions, brief summaries, and definitions of key terms. It also supplies descriptions of each chapter author's critical-thinking experience, which evidences how critical thinking has made a difference to facilitating career development.
We present a preliminary analysis of the Strömgren uvby photometry of the magnetic CP stars obtained using the Four College Automated Photometric Telescope for its 21.5 years of operation ending in Fall 2012. We summarize the photometry for all the FCAPT mCP stars that have been published to date. We do not find any significant correlation between the amplitudes of variation in the uvby filters and the periods. A small number of stars show anomalous behaviour of the v filter which will be discussed in a future study.