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Muskmelon, which is an important cucurbit of the tropical and subtropical region of the world, shows great diversity, with six different botanical or horticultural groups and fifteen varietal groups. In this study, a total of fifty (50) simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of 46 muskmelon accessions of different horticultural or varietal groups. Thirty-eight (38) of the fifty SSR markers were highly polymorphic. A total of 99 alleles were generated by the polymorphic markers, with an average of 2.06 alleles per loci. Heterozygosity among accessions for individual loci varied from 0.00 to 0.21, with the highest (0.21) reported for the CMCTN71 marker. The gene diversity and polymorphism information content (PIC) values varied between 0.08 to 0.72 and 0.07 to 0.67, with an average of 0.47 and 0.38, respectively. The primer that showed the highest gene diversity and PIC values was DM0913. The unweighted pair-group method for arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based dendrogram classified all the 46 accessions into two major clusters. Population structure analysis classified 46 muskmelon accessions into 2 subpopulations. The subpopulation I contained 29 accessions from the cantalupensis group, and subpopulation II contained 17 accessions from momordica, inodorus and conomon groups, respectively. Analysis of variance indicated that 18 and 68% of variance was due to subpopulations and differences among individuals, respectively. The present study supports the existence of sufficient variation among musk melon genetic resources in India, and their classification based on molecular markers will be helpful to accelerate the breeding programme for specific traits.
Through-wall imaging is capable of detecting various living and non-living things behind the wall. The characteristics of the wall under the investigation, amount of clutter and noise govern the quality and reliability of the image as well as the detection ability of the targets using through the wall imaging system. The characteristics of the wall are not known prior, in the literature only the intensity profile is investigated for the unknown wall characteristics using a single dielectric target and the effect of the wall characteristics on the contrast imaging and impact on time or frequency domain features are not investigated. The target with less dielectric is having less reflectivity; hence its detection in the presence of a high reflective target and a noisy environment becomes difficult. In this paper, to enhance the detection ability of the imaging system attenuation constant (α) of the wall is estimated with the proposed wall parameter estimation methods and used as a normalizing factor. To achieve effective beamforming different weighting strategies are developed and the obtained images are compared with the traditional beamforming. Furthermore, a novel approach to finding the effective rank in the low-rank estimation using a statistical model and multi-objective genetic algorithm is proposed for de-noising.
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the most common malignancy in the Indian males. Most of the cases of HNC present in locally advanced stage and requires a multidisciplinary management approach. Radical or adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is one of the important integral components of the management of HNC.
To find the incidence of hypothyroidism (HT) in patients of HNC treated with radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy.
A prospective, single institutional longitudinal observational study conducted at the department of radiotherapy, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata.
In this study, data of 118 patients were analysed. The median age at presentation was 56 years. The most common primary site of malignancy was oral cavity (39%). The patients were stage I, stage II and stage III as 11, 37·3 and 51·7% respectively. The median dose of EBRT was 66 Gy. HT statistically significantly correlated with primary site of malignancy (p = 0·001), dose of EBRT (p = 0·005). At the end of follow-up of 6 months, 39·8% developed HT.
The thyroid gland is an important organ at risk while considering EBRT to neck region. The inclusion of thyroid function test in routine follow-up is mandated.
In through the wall imaging systems, wall parameters like its thickness and dielectric constant play an important role in the true and correct image formation of an object behind the wall made of various materials like brick cement, wood, plastic, etc. Incorrect estimation of these parameters leads to dislocation of the object and smearing or blurriness of the image too. A new autofocusing technique for a stepped frequency continuous wave -based radar at the frequency of 1–3 Ghz has been developed that corrects the wall's parameters like its thickness and dielectric constant and provides a better focused image of the target. For this purpose, a peak signal to noise ratio -based autofocusing technique has been developed by using curve fitting and the genetic algorithm. It is observed that the proposed technique has capability to focus the image up to good extent.
In recent years, millimeter wave (MMW) has received tremendous interest among researchers, which offers systems with high data rate communication, portability, and finer resolution. The design of the antenna at MMWs is challenging as it suffers from fabrication and measurement complexities due to associated smaller dimensions. Current state-of-the-art MMW dual-band antenna techniques demand high precision fabrication, which increases the overall cost of the system. Henceforth, the design of an MMW antenna with fabrication and measurement simplicity is quite challenging. In this paper, a simple coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed single-band MMW antenna operating at 94 GHz (W band) and a dual-band MMW antenna operating concurrently at 60 GHz (V band) and 86 GHz (E band) have been designed, fabricated, and measured. A 50 Ω CPW-to-microstrip transition has also been designed to facilitate probe measurement compatibility and to provide proper feeding to the antenna. The fabricated single frequency 94 GHz antenna shows a fractional bandwidth of 11.2% and E-plane (H-plane) gain 6.17 dBi (6.2 dBi). Furthermore, the designed MMW dual-band antenna shows fractional bandwidth: 2/6.4%, and E-plane (H-plane) gain: 7.29 dBi (7.36 dBi)/8.73 dBi (8.68 dBi) at 60/86 GHz, respectively. The proposed antenna provides a simple and cost-effective solution for different MMW applications.
Balance between adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation is the key link of disease progression in obesity and osteoporosis. We have previously reported that formononetin (FNT), an isoflavone extracted from Butea monosperma, stimulates osteoblast formation and protects against postmenopausal bone loss. The inverse relationship between osteoblasts and adipocytes prompted us to analyse the effect of FNT on adipogenesis and in vivo bone loss, triggered by high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. The anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of FNT was determined in 3T3-L1 cells and HFD-induced obese male mice. Our findings show that FNT suppresses the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, through down-regulation of key adipogenic markers such as PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and inhibits intracellular TAG accumulation. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation accompanied by stabilisation of β-catenin were attributed to the anti-adipogenic action of FNT. In vivo, 12 weeks of FNT treatment inhibited the development of obesity in mice by attenuating HFD-induced body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation. The anti-obesity effect of FNT results from increased energy expenditure. FNT also protects against HFD-induced dyslipidaemia and rescues deterioration of trabecular bone volume by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorbtion caused by HFD. FNT’s rescuing action against obesity-induced osteoporosis commenced at the level of progenitors, as bone marrow progenitor cells, obtained from the HFD mice group supplemented with FNT, showed increased osteogenic and decreased adipogenic potentials. Our findings suggest that FNT inhibits adipogenesis through AMPK/β-catenin signal transduction pathways and protects against HFD-induced obesity and bone loss.
In this presentation, results of our recent investigations on the role of Ga on Al site in Zr69.5Al7.5-xGaxCu12Ni11 and Ce75Al25-xGax metallic glass compositions will be discussed. Ga like Al is normally expected to be in trivalent state. However, it may go in monovalent state depending on other alloying elements. The rapidly solidified melt spun ribbons of above two alloys gave rise to two important conclusions. The Zr69.5Al7.5-xGaxCu12Ni11 system displayed metallic glass formation in the range of x=0 to 7.5. In this process, we have come out with a new composition of glass without Al corresponding to x=7.5. In contrast to the above, for Ce-Al(Ga) system, we have observed phase separation in glass after dilute substitution of Ga. It seems that such a phase separation in this system cannot be understood in terms of summation of enthalpy of mixing of the various possible binaries in this system. The substitution of Ga in different valence states might have created chemical pressure leading to creation of two types of distinct major clusters. The phase separation may be due to this. This has also given rise to excursion of Ce 4f-states of the alloy. This and aforesaid ‘chemical pressure’ will be corroborated based on results of binary Ce-Al system under pressure by other investigators.
The relationship between fat and bone mass at distinct trabecular and cortical skeletal compartments in a high-fat diet (HFD) model was studied. For this, C57BL/6 mice were assigned to four groups of eight animals each. Two groups, each of males and females, received a standard chow diet while the remaining other two groups received the HFD for a period of 10 weeks. Male mice on the HFD were heavier and gained more weight (15·8 %; P< 0·05) v. those on the control diet or when compared with the female rats fed the HFD. We observed an increased lipid profile in both males and females, with significantly higher lipid levels (about 20–25 %; P< 0·01) in males. However, glucose intolerance was more pronounced in females than males on the HFD (about 30 %; P< 0·05). The micro-architectural assessment of bones showed that compared with female mice on the HFD, male mice on the HFD showed more deterioration at the trabecular region. This was corroborated by plasma osteocalcin and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTx) levels confirming greater loss in males (about 20 %; P< 0·01). In both sexes cortical bone parameters and strength remained unchanged after 10 weeks of HFD treatment. The direct effect of the HFD on bone at the messenger RNA level in progenitor cells isolated from femoral bone marrow was a significantly increased expression of adipogenic marker genes v. osteogenic genes. Overall, the present data indicate that obesity induced by a HFD aggravates bone loss in the cancellous bone compartment, with a greater loss in males than females, although 10 weeks of HFD treatment did not alter cortical bone mass and strength in both males and females.
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