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Research has shown that Japan's parallel electoral system altered the incentives that parties and their members face when competing for lower-house seats, leading to, among other things, more policy-oriented and less personalistic elections. What is less well known is how these altered incentives affect the decisions of incumbents to stay with their current party organizations or exit and join another political party. We address this question by using data from the 2017 snap election in Japan, specifically, the exit decisions of Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) incumbents. Typically exit decisions involve considerations of electoral support, policy, or increased office benefits. Our results indicate that policy considerations were a primary factor in DPJ members' exit decisions but also that exiting legislators considered the risks associated with these decisions, which was molded by available party alternatives, each's electoral strength, and a unique feature of Japan's electoral rules, the fact that it reduced the electoral risk for some but not all incumbents who contemplated switching parties.
The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
Patterson argues that Dworkin’s critique of legal positivism, specifically Dworkin’s critique of Hart’s positivist theory of law, went through two stages: first the critique put forward in Dworkin’s 1967 article ‘The Model of Rules’, which focused on the alleged inability of the rule of recognition to account for the existence of legal principles; then the criticism expressed in Law’s Empire concerning the alleged inability of the theory to account for the existence of so-called theoretical disagreement in law. Patterson’s conclusion, however, is that although Dworkin in his mature critique made a number of valid points, such as identifying the lack of a thought-out view on legal interpretation in Hart’s legal philosophy, he ultimately failed to undermine Hart’s theory. As Patterson sees it, although legal positivists lack a thought-out view of legal interpretation, there is nothing in the theory of legal positivism that stops them from developing such a theory, and he suggests three crucial criteria that a positivist theory of legal interpretation must satisfy, namely, minimal mutilation of existing law, coherence, and generality.
South Korea is the only nation to become an important donor nation after being a recipient of Official Development Assistance (ODA) for several decades. In 2010, it became a member of the OECD's Development Assistance Committee, and while it has continued to use its experience as a former ODA recipient to inform its distribution practices, it also has evolved its ODA policies in response to changes in international norms and the imperatives associated with being a DAC-member nation. We know that, while policies may change, actual ODA disbursements—which nations are selected as recipients and receive ODA in what amounts—may lag or even remain unchanged. In this paper, we use the case of South Korea to determine how actual ODA disbursements change in response to policy changes. To accomplish this, we use a selection model to conduct a statistical analysis of South Korea's ODA disbursements using dyadic data from 1987 to 2016. Our results indicate that, while there has been continuity in terms of which nations receive South Korean ODA, there were also notable changes in its disbursements. Specifically, the ODA policy changes the South Korean government enacted did result in an altered profile of nations that were targeted by South Korea as ODA recipients.
Research has shown that a candidate’s appearance affects the support he or she receives in elections. We extend this research in this article in three ways. First, we examine this relationship further in a non-Western context using 2015 local elections in Japan. Next, we show that this positive relationship is more complicated depending on the characteristics of the election under consideration. Specifically, we distinguished election contests by levels of turnout and found that despite a positive relationship between turnout and the extent to which smiling increases a candidate’s support levels, the marginal increase in support declined as turnout increased and, in fact, became negative when some high-turnout threshold was crossed. Finally, we show that the number of candidates competing in an election is negatively related to the impact of a candidate smiling, confirming research conducted by the Dartmouth Group.
Scientific digital imaging in three dimensions such as when using X-ray computed tomography offers a variety of ways to obtain, filter, and quantify data that can produce vastly different results. These opportunities, performed during image acquisition or during the data processing, can include filtering, cropping, and setting thresholds. Quantifying features in these images can be greatly affected by how the above operations are performed. For example, during binarization, setting the threshold too low or too high can change the number of objects as well as their measured diameter. Here, two facets of three-dimensional quantification are explored. The first will focus on investigating the question of how many voxels are needed within an object to have accurate geometric statistics that are due to the properties of the object and not an artifact of too few voxels. These statistics include but are not limited to percent of total volume, volume of the individual object, Feret shape, and surface area. Using simple cylinders as a starting point, various techniques for smoothing, filtering, and other processing steps can be investigated to aid in determining if they are appropriate for a specific desired statistic for a real dataset. The second area of investigation is the influence of post-processing, particularly segmentation, on measuring the damage statistics in high purity Cu. The most important parts of the pathways of processing are highlighted.
The Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) sepsis guidelines created by the CAEP Critical Care Practice Committee (C4) and published in the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM) form the most definitive publication on Canadian emergency department (ED) sepsis care to date. Our intention was to identify which of the care items in this document are specifically necessary in the ED and then to provide these items in a tiered checklist that can be used by any Canadian ED practitioner.
Practice points from the CJEM sepsis publication were identified to create a practice point list. Members of C4 then used a Delphi technique consensus process over May to October 2009 via e-mail to create a tiered checklist of sepsis care items that can or could be completed in a Canadian ED when caring for the septic shock patient. This checklist was then assessed for use by a survey of ED practitioners from varying backgrounds (rural ED, community ED, tertiary ED) from July to October 2010.
Twenty sepsis care items were identified in the CAEP sepsis guidelines. Fifteen items were felt to be necessary for ED care. Two levels of checklists were then created that can be used in a Canadian ED. Most ED physicians in community and tertiary care centres could complete all parts of the level I sepsis checklist. Rural centres often struggle with the ability to obtain lactate values and central venous access. Many items of the level II sepsis checklist could not be completed outside the tertiary care centre ED.
Sepsis care continues to be an integral and major part of the ED domain. Practice points for sepsis care that require specialized monitoring and invasive techniques are often limited to larger tertiary care EDs and, although heavily emphasized by many medical bodies, cannot be reasonably expected in all centres. When the resources of a centre limit patient care, transfer may be required.
Les directives de l'Association canadienne des médecins d'urgence (ACMU) relatives à la sepsie, créées par le Critical Care Practice Committee de l'ACMU (C4) et publiées dans le Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM), constituent la plus importante publication consacrée à la prise en charge de la sepsie au sein des services des urgences (SU) canadiens. Notre intention consistait à identifier lesquels, parmi les éléments de prise en charge proposés dans ce document, sont spécifiquement nécessaires au sein du SU et de présenter ensuite ces éléments sous la forme d'une liste de contrôle à plusieurs niveaux pouvant être utilisée par n'importe quel praticien d'un SU canadien.
Les points pratiques de la publication du CJEM consacrée à la sepsie ont été identifiés afin de générer une liste pratique en plusieurs points. Les membres du C4 ont ensuite eu recours, de mai à octobre 2009, à une procédure de consensus selon la technique Delphi, par courriel, en vue de créer une liste de contrôle à plusieurs niveaux relatives aux eléménts de la prise en charge de la sepsie pouvant ou non être assurés au sein d'un SU canadien lors de la prise en charge d'un patient victime d'un choc septique. Cette liste de contrôle a ensuite été évaluée en vue de son utilisation par le biais d'un questionnaire adressé à des praticiens de SU travaillant dans divers contextes (SU rural, SU communautaire, SU tertiaire), cela de juillet à octobre 2010.
Vingt éléments de la prise en charge de la sepsie ont été identifiés dans les directives de l'ACMU relatives à la sepsie. Quinze eléménts ont été jugés nécessaires pour la prise en charge dans le cadre d'un SU. On a ensuite crée deux niveaux de liste de contrôle pouvant être utilisés dans un SU canadien. La plupart des médecins urgentistes travaillant dans des centres de soins communautaires et tertiaires ont pu réaliser toutes les parties de la liste de contrôle de niveau I pour le sepsis. Les centres ruraux rencontrent souvent des difficultés en ce qui concerne la possibilité d'obtention d'un dosage du lactate valeurs et d'un accès veineux central. Un grand nombre d'éléments de la liste de contrôle de niveau II pour le sepsis n'ont pas pu être réalisés en dehors des SU de centres de soins tertiaires.
La prise en charge de la sepsie fait toujours partie intégrante et constitue un élément majeur du domaine des SU. Les points pratiques pour la prise en charge de la sepsie qui requièrent un monitorage spécialisé et des techniques invasives sont souvent limités aux SU de soins tertiaires plus importants et, bien que bon nombre de corps médicaux soulignent leur importance, ne peuvent pas raisonnablement être attendus dans tous les centres. Lorsque les ressources d'un centre limitent la prise en charge du patient, un transfert peut s'avérer nécessaire.
In a post-September 11 world, no religious group in the United States has become more important yet remains more misunderstood than Muslim-Americans. This is particularly true with respect to the manner in which religious and political attitudes influence Muslim-Americans’ political behavior. This article addresses this issue by using data gathered from surveys taken in 70 mosques throughout the United States. With these data, this article maps the political and religious attitudes and behavior of mosque-attending Muslim-Americans and then analyzes the voting behavior of these respondents in the 2000 and 2004 Presidential elections. It will show that the cultural and religious traditions of Islam have resulted in most mosque-attending Muslim-Americans being social conservatives and, as a result, report having voted for Bush in 2000. It will also show that increasingly negative perceptions of the manner in which the United States war in Iraq has affected Muslims living American led many to switch loyalties and cast their ballots for Kerry in 2004.
During the five democratic elections held in Taiwan from 1992 to 2004 inclusive, the formerly dominant Kuomintang Party (KMT) was temporarily supplanted by the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) as the nation's largest political party. Most explanations for this have focused on party fragmentation and the changing patterns of electoral competition it helped create. These are important factors, but they have not been tested empirically at the level where candidates won and lost legislative seats, the level of the election district. This article offers such an empirical test, and it will show that these two factors had a direct impact on the ability of DPP and KMT candidates to obtain legislative seats. We also show that these factors carried indirect impacts by hurting the ability of the KMT and DPP to nominate in a way that they would obtain all the seats that their obtained vote shares would allow.