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Described by The New York Times as 'Britain's foremost scholar of criminal law', Professor Glanville Williams was one of the greatest academic lawyers of the twentieth century. To mark the centenary of his birth in 2011, leading criminal law theorists and medical law ethicists from around the world were invited to contribute essays discussing the sanctity of life and criminal law while engaging with Williams' many contributions to these fields. In re-examining his work, the contributors have produced a provocative set of original essays that make a significant contribution to the current debate in these areas.
An understanding of molecular interactions is essential for insight into biological systems at the molecular scale. Among the various components of molecular interactions, electrostatics are of special importance because of their long-range nature and their influence on polar or charged molecules, including water, aqueous ions, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and membrane lipids. In particular, robust models of electrostatic interactions are essential for understanding the solvation properties of biomolecules and the effects of solvation upon biomolecular folding, binding, enzyme catalysis, and dynamics. Electrostatics, therefore, are of central importance to understanding biomolecular structure and modeling interactions within and among biological molecules. This review discusses the solvation of biomolecules with a computational biophysics view toward describing the phenomenon. While our main focus lies on the computational aspect of the models, we provide an overview of the basic elements of biomolecular solvation (e.g. solvent structure, polarization, ion binding, and non-polar behavior) in order to provide a background to understand the different types of solvation models.
1. Thirty-six of 70 Microtus agrestis captured near Oxford, England, between January and July, 1961, were infected with blood parasites—9 with Trypanosoma microti Laveran & Pettit, 1909, 18 with Babesia microtia (França, 1912) and 19 with Grahamella microti Lavier, 1921: some had more than one species.
2. Morphologically indistinguishable parasites were found in 6 of 20 Clethrionomys glareolus (Babesia in 3, Trypanosoma in 2, and Grahamella in 1) and 2 of 4 Apodemus sylvaticus (Grahamella only). Hepatozoon sp. indet. was found in one C. glareolus.
3. It is probable that the proportion of M. agrestis with patent infections of G. microti increased, and possibly that due to T. microti fell, during February–April, 1961.
4. M. agrestis often have very enlarged spleens and it appeared that B. microtia (sometimes associated with T. microti) was commoner in the animals with the largest spleens.