The etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) remains unknown. The hypothesis of genetic factors playing a role in the causation of the disease, at least in its familial form, has been borne out by results showing linkage in several early-onset AD families to a locus on the proximal part of the long arm of chromosome 21. Linkage was not detected in several other families using the same markers. The metabolism of neurofilaments is perturbed in AD, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit in AD brain. To detect a possible anomaly that might relate to the disease, we have searched for an association between the genes for the light subunit and the heavy subunit of the neurofilament triplet, and AD. Genotypes for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) at each of the two loci were determined for an AD group and a control group. Allelic frequencies at a Taql-defined RFLP for the gene for the light neurofilament subunit were 0.70 for the 3.7 kb allele and 0.30 for the 2.9 kb allele. Hindi detected an RFLP for the heavy neurofilament subunit gene with frequencies of 0.31 for the 18.0 kb allele and 0.69 for the 6.8 kb allele. Frequencies were found to be similar in the two groups for both light and heavy neurofilament subunit loci. Although it cannot be excluded that mutations at other sites of the neurofilament genes are relevant to AD, the data reported here do not support an association between these genes and the disease.