The investigation of spatial and temporal variability of the snow cover in northern Eurasia (snow depth, density, thermal characteristics, water equivalent) includes large-scale fieldwork, modelling and analysis of meteorological data of two winters (2004/05 and 2005/06) from 38 weather stations situated in different climatic conditions and physico-geographical zones. Common regularities and features of snow-cover variability are revealed for these winters, despite their contrasting temperature and precipitation regimes and differences from an average winter, as the time of appearance, duration and depth of snow cover, the number of snowfalls and date of melting. The modelling of snow-cover stratigraphy is based on viscous compression and recrystallization laws. Meteorological information (temperature, wind velocity and precipitation) is used as input for the model. The output is the specific snow-cover stratigraphy according to positioning in different physical–geographical regions and due to the possible variation as determined by winter temperature and precipitation regimes. The peculiarity of snow-cover stratigraphy at the regional scale depends on the meteorological conditions of its formation as well as on the character of landscapes. A satisfactory correlation of the modelled typical columns of the snow cover formed in 2004/05 and 2005/06 in different regions of Russia and of real columns is revealed.