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In the present study, we assessed functional response curves of two generalist coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), specifically Menochilus sexmaculatus and Propylea dissecta, using fluctuating densities of aphid prey as a stimulus. In what may be the first such study, we investigated how the prey density experienced during the early larval development of these two predatory beetle species shaped the functional response curves of the late instar–larval and adult stages. The predators were switched from their rearing prey-density environments of scarce, optimal, or abundant prey to five testing density environments of extremely scarce, scarce, suboptimal, optimal, or abundant prey. The individuals of M. sexmaculatus that were reared on either scarce- and optimal- or abundant-prey densities exhibited type II functional response curves as both larvae and adults. However, individuals of P. dissecta that were reared on scarce- and abundant-prey densities displayed modified type II functional response curves as larvae and type II functional response curves as adults. In contrast, individuals of P. dissecta reared on the optimal-prey density displayed type II functional response curves as larvae and modified type II functional response curves as adults. The fourth-instar larvae and adult females of M. sexmaculatus and P. dissecta also exhibited highest prey consumption (T/Th) and shortest prey-handling time (Th) on the scarce-prey rearing density. Thus, under fluctuating-prey conditions, M. sexmaculatus is a better biological control agent of aphids than P. dissecta is.
The Miocene beds of Kutch in India are well known for their mammalian assemblages, including the extinct ape Sivapithecus, but far less is known about the fossil squamates from this area. Although India with its over 800 reptile species is recognized as one of the global biodiversity hotspots, knowledge of past diversity and paleobiogeography of squamates on this subcontinent is very limited. We here report on new lizard finds, which have been recovered from two stratigraphic levels: the older Palasava locality (dated to the middle Miocene, ca. 14 Ma) and the younger Tapar site (late Miocene, ca. 11–10 Ma). Although fragmentarily preserved, the material described here sheds important light on the composition and paleobiogeography of squamates during the Miocene in South Asia. The older Palasava locality contains cf. Uromastyx s.l. and Varanus sp., the latter representing the oldest record of this taxon in the region of India south of the Himalayas and its occurrence here suggests a mean annual temperature not less than 15°C. The material from the younger Tapar locality consists of an unidentified acrodontan lizard, here questionably placed in agamids, and a skink. The latter shows a resemblance to mabuyines, however, the fragmentary nature of the material does not allow a precise allocation without doubts. The cosmopolitan mabuyines have been suggested to have their origin in Asia, so the potential presence of mabuyines in the Tapar locality might represent the first, but putative, Asian evidence of the occurrence of this group in the Miocene.
The Sikkim-Himalaya represents one of the unique reservoirs of rice genetic resources in India owing to the presence of a large number of landraces adapted to extreme climatic and edaphic conditions. This valuable gene pool is now under threat due to the introduction of high-yielding varieties, wanting suitable genetic intervention for enhancing their productivity, and thus economic viability. Development of lodging resistant, high-yielding varieties tolerant to soil acidity through association mapping aided marker-assisted breeding programmes can help achieve this in a fast and efficient manner. But this requires information on genetic diversity, population structure, etc., of the germplasm collection, which is strikingly lacking. We, therefore, characterized a set of 53 rice landraces from Sikkim to address the above issues. The results revealed moderate diversity, poor divergence and high gene flow in our germplasm collection attesting its utility as an association mapping panel. Further, a total of 115 putative marker-trait associations (P < 0.05, R2 ≥ 10%) were obtained using the general linear model and mixed linear models of which 25 were identical in both. Some of the associated markers were positioned in those regions where Qualitative Trait Loci have been previously identified in rice, providing credence to our results. The resources generated from this study will benefit the rice breeders from this region and elsewhere for targeting the yield and related traits, in addition to conservation efforts by the interested researchers.
In this study we compared radiation dose received by organs at risk (OARs) after breast conservation surgery(BCS) and mastectomy in patients with left breast cancer.
Materials and methods
Total 30 patients, 15 each of BCS and mastectomy were included in this study. Planning Computerised Tomography (CT) was done for each patient. Chest wall, whole breast, heart, lungs, LAD, proximal and distal LAD, and contra lateral breast was contoured for each patient. Radiotherapy plans were made by standard tangent field. Dose prescribed was 40Gy/16#/3 weeks. Mean heart dose, LAD, proximal and distal LAD, mean and V5 of right lung, and mean, V5, V10 and V20 of left lung, mean dose and V2 of contra lateral breast were calculated for each patient and compared between BCS and mastectomy patients using student’s T test.
Mean doses to the heart, LAD, proximal LAD and distal LAD were 3.364Gy, 16.06Gy, 2.7Gy, 27.5Gy; and 4.219Gy, 14.653Gy, 4.306Gy, 24.6Gy, respectively for mastectomy and BCS patients. Left lung mean dose, V5, V10 and V20 were 5.96Gy, 16%, 14%, 12.4%; and 7.69Gy, 21%, 18% and 16% in mastectomy and BCS patients, respectively. There was no statistical significant difference in the doses to the heart and left lung between mastectomy and BCS. Mean dose to the right lung was significantly less in mastectomy as compared to BCS, 0.29Gy vs. 0.51Gy, respectively (p = 0.007). Mean dose to the opposite breast was significantly lower in patients with mastectomy than BCS (0.54Gy Vs 0.37Gy, p = 0.007). The dose to the distal LAD was significantly higher than proximal LAD both in BCS (24.6Gy Vs 4.3Gy, p = <0.0001) and mastectomy (27.5Gy Vs 2.7Gy, p = <0.0001) patients.
There was no difference in doses received by heart and left lung between BCS and mastectomy patients. Mean doses to the right lung and breast were significantly less in mastectomy patients.
Predicting and preventing relapse presents a crucial opportunity and first step to improve outcomes and reduce the care gap for persons living with schizophrenia. Using commercially available smartphones and smartwatches, technology now affords opportunities to capture real-time and longitudinal profiles of patients’ symptoms, cognition, physiology and social patterns. This novel data makes it possible to explore relationships between behaviours, physiology and symptoms, which may yield personalised relapse signals.
Smartphone Health Assessment for Relapse Prevention (SHARP), an international mental health research study supported by the Wellcome Trust, will inform the development of a scalable and sharable digital health solution to monitor personal risk of relapse. The resulting technology will be studied toward predicting and preventing relapse among individuals diagnosed with serious mental illness.
SHARP is a two-phase study with research sites in Boston, Massachusetts, and Bangalore and Bhopal, India. During phase 1, focus groups will be conducted at each study site to collect feedback on the design and features available on mindLAMP, a digital health platform. Individuals with serious mental illness will use mindLAMP for the duration of a year during phase 2.
The results of the research outlined in this protocol will guide the development of technology and digital tools to help address pervasive challenges in global mental health.
The digital tools developed as a result of this study, and participants’ experiences using them, may offer insight into opportunities to expand digital mental health resources and optimize their utilisation around the world.
Despite significant advancements in healthcare technology, digital health solutions – especially those for serious mental illnesses – continue to fall short of their potential across both clinical practice and efficacy. The utility and impact of medicine, including digital medicine, hinges on relationships, trust, and engagement, particularly in the field of mental health. This paper details results from Phase 1 of a two-part study that seeks to engage people with schizophrenia, their family members, and clinicians in co-designing a digital mental health platform for use across different cultures and contexts in the United States and India.
Each site interviewed a mix of clinicians, patients, and their family members in focus groups (n = 20) of two to six participants. Open-ended questions and discussions inquired about their own smartphone use and, after a demonstration of the mindLAMP platform, specific feedback on the app's utility, design, and functionality.
Our results based on thematic analysis indicate three common themes: increased use and interest in technology during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), concerns over how data are used and shared, and a desire for concurrent human interaction to support app engagement.
People with schizophrenia, their family members, and clinicians are open to integrating technology into treatment to better understand their condition and help inform treatment. However, app engagement is dependent on technology that is complementary – not substitutive – of therapeutic care from a clinician.
The effect of fluid on the natural frequencies of a vertical rectangular lock gate is investigated. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible having an irrotational flow field. The far boundary of fluid domain is truncated near the lock gate structure by solving the Laplace equation using Fourier half range cosine series expansion. The formulation of lock gate structure is governed using Mindlin’s plate theory. The coupled interaction between the fluid domain and the lock gate structure is established using finite element method (FEM) and a computer code is written using FORTRAN. Convergence study and validation of the formulation are carried out to minimise the computational error. The natural frequencies of lock gate coupled with and without fluid are determined for undisturbed and linearised free surface conditions. By varying extent of fluid domain, the effect on the natural frequencies of lock gate is evaluated. The results of natural frequencies obtained may be useful to the designer when the reservoir lock gate structure is exposed to the natural disasters.
Indian society, from time immemorial, has nurtured a thinking civilization. It never lived an isolated existence and never displayed xenophobic tendencies until recently. Techno-scientific tradition in India has largely been a synthetic tradition, continuously evolving as a result of each politico-cultural interaction with the outside world and social change within the region. In pre-modern times, the Indian subcontinent was known for its contribution to astronomy, medicine, and mathematics. But it was during the post-Renaissance epoch (that of Descartes and Newton) that Europe began to outdistance all other culture-areas.
GaN films have been grown on SiC substrates with an AlN nucleation layer by using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Micro-cracking of the GaN films has been observed in some of the grown samples. In order to investigate the micro-cracking and microstructure, the samples have been studied using various characterization techniques such as optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphology of the AlN nucleation layer is related to the stress evolution in subsequent overgrown GaN epilayers. It is determined via TEM evidence that, if the AlN nucleation layer has a rough surface morphology, this leads to tensile stresses in the GaN films, which finally results in cracking. Raman spectroscopy results also suggest this, by showing the existence of considerable tensile residual stress in the AlN nucleation layer. Based on these various observations and results, conclusions or propositions relating to the microstructure are presented.
In this work, a new compact, low profile, frequency, and end-fire pattern reconfigurable antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of four parasitic elements and an electric-inductive-capacitive (ELC) resonator enclosed with a closed ring resonator (CRR). The reconfigurability in the proposed antenna is achieved with the help of five PIN diodes (D1–D5) embedded on the top surface of the substrate. The diode (D1) is implanted between ELC and CRR resonators for frequency reconfigurability. The other four diodes (D2–D5) are implanted between the ground plane and four parasitic elements to control the electrical length of the ground plane to achieve pattern diversity. The ground plane and parasitic elements steer the primary omni-directional beam to bi-directional and uni-directional end-fire radiation at multiple frequencies. The proposed antenna exhibits multiband operation and end-fire pattern diversity depending upon the different states of PIN diodes. The overall size of the proposed antenna is 0.20λ0× 0.17λ0× 0.009λ0, where λ0 is calculated at the lowest resonance frequency. The impedance bandwidth of the antenna ranges from 1.45 to 26.22%, while peak gain varies from 0.86 to 3.86 dBi depending upon the state of operation. The measured results are in agreement with the simulated results, which confirm the frequency and pattern diversity performance of the antenna. The proposed antenna can be used in back-to-back repeater systems.
Hydrilla is an invasive aquatic plant that has rapidly spread through many inland water bodies across the globe by outcompeting native aquatic plants. The negative impacts of hydrilla invasion have become a concern for water resource management authorities, power companies, and environmental scientists. The early detection of hydrilla infestation is very important to reduce the costs associated with control and removal efforts of this invasive species. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop a tool for rapid, frequent, and large-scale monitoring and predicting spatial extent of hydrilla habitat. This was achieved by integrating in situ and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager satellite data for Lake J. Strom Thurmond, the largest US Army Corps of Engineers lake east of the Mississippi River, located on the border of Georgia and South Carolina border. The predictive model for presence of hydrilla incorporated radiometric and physical measurements, including remote-sensing reflectance, Secchi disk depth (SDD), light-attenuation coefficient (Kd), maximum depth of colonization (Zc), and percentage of light available through the water column (PLW). The model-predicted ideal habitat for hydrilla featured high SDD, Zc, and PLW values, low values of Kd. Monthly analyses based on satellite images showed that hydrilla starts growing in April, reaches peak coverage around October, begins retreating in the following months, and disappears in February. Analysis of physical and meteorological factors (i.e., water temperature, surface runoff, net inflow, precipitation) revealed that these parameters are closely associated with hydrilla extent. Management agencies can use these results not only to plan removal efforts but also to evaluate and adapt their current mitigation efforts.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted huge concern because of their intrinsic characteristics and ability to reach the pinnacle in the field of high-quality flat-panel displays and energy-efficient solid-state lighting. High-efficiency is always a key crux for OLED devices being energy-saving and longer life-span. OLEDs have encountered enormous difficulties in meeting the requirements for large-sized devices due to a major limitation in vacuum thermal evaporation technology. In multilayered OLED devices, the characteristics of the charge injection/transport layer is a crucial factor for the operating-voltage, power-efficiency and stability of the device. Transition metal oxides have shown great potential owing to their wide range of possible energy level alignments, balanced charge injection, and improvement of carrier mobilities. In this study, we report a solution-processed blend V2O5-PEDOT:PSS hole-injection/hole-transport layer (HIL/HTL) for efficient orange phosphorescent OLEDs. The electroluminescent characteristics of blend V2O5-PEDOT:PSS based devices were studied with the structure ITO/V2O5-PEDOT:PSS/CBP:Ir(2-phq)3/TPBi/LiF/Al. The V2O5-PEDOT:PSS based OLEDs displayed relatively higher device performance and low roll-off than that of the counter PEDOT:PSS device in terms of a maximum luminance of 17,670 cd m-2, power efficiency of 19.4 lm W-1, external quantum efficiency of 8.7%, and more importantly, low turn-on voltage. These results demonstrate an alternative approach based on metal oxide/organic blend HIL/HTL as a substitute of PEDOT:PSS for high-efficiency solution process OLEDs.
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have drawn great attention owing to their potential applications in high-quality flat display panels and smart solid-state lighting. Over the last three decades, numerous approaches have been made on material design and device physics to achieve high-efficiency and long-lifespan. Herein, we report a novel tactic to employ solution-processed hybrid metal oxide, molybdenum trioxide-tungsten trioxide (MoO3:WO3), as an efficient and stable hole injection/transport (HIL/HTL) and electron blocking layer for efficient OLEDs. By using phosphorescent orange-red emitter tris(2-phenylquinoline)-iridium(III) Ir(2-phq)3, MoO3:WO3 HIL based OLED device exhibits a power efficiency of 27.7 lm W-1 and 22.9 lm W-1 at 100 and 1000 cd m-2, respectively, which are 89% and 157% higher than that of conventional OLED device consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as an HIL. Moreover, the resulted device also displays 1.6 times lower turn-on voltage and 3.0 time higher brightness as compare to other counter part. The higher device performances of OLED device may be attributed to robust hole transporting ability, balanced charge carrier in the recombination zone and non-acidic nature of designed HIL. Our results demonstrate that a novel alternative approach based on transition metal oxide hybrid HIL/HTL as a substitute to PEDOT:PSS for high-efficiency solution process OLEDs.
Thin films of insulating Ti1−xNixO2 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15) are synthesized by the spray pyrolysis technique. All the films are seen to crystallize into polycrystalline anatase phase of TiO2. However, weak signature of the NiTiO3 phase is also observed for the films having higher Ni ion concentration. Optical absorption analysis suggests nonmonotonous band gap decrease from 3.67 to 3.59 eV with respect to added concentration of Ni ions unto ‘x’ = 0.10 in the TiO2 matrix. The presence of ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature in Ni incorporated TiO2 films is revealed by M–H measurements. Calculated values of saturation magnetization indicate that the observed ferromagnetism is not due to the presence of Ni clusters or segregation of other ferromagnetic phase. Electrically insulating nature of the films suggests that the observed FM ordering is most probably due to the ferromagnetic interaction between bound magnetic polarons which formed due to the creation of oxygen vacancies or defects.
To evaluate effectiveness of point-of-use water treatment in improving treatment of children affected by severe acute malnutrition (SAM).
Programme sites were randomized to one of four intervention arms: (i) standard SAM treatment; (ii) SAM treatment plus flocculent/disinfectant water treatment; (iii) SAM treatment plus chlorine disinfectant; or (iv) SAM treatment plus ceramic water filter. Outcome measures were calculated based on participant status upon exit or after 120d of enrolment, whichever came first. Child anthropometric data were collected during weekly monitoring at programme sites. Child caregivers were interviewed at enrolment and exit. Use of water treatment products was assessed in a home visit 4–6 weeks after enrolment.
Dadu District, Sindh Province, Pakistan.
Children (n 901) aged 6–59 months with SAM and no medical complications.
Recovery rates were 16·7–22·2 % higher among children receiving water treatment compared with the control group. The adjusted odds of recovery were approximately twice as high for those receiving water treatment compared with controls. Mean length of stay until recovery was 73 (sd 24·6) d and mean rate of weight gain was 4·7 (sd 3·0) g/kg per d. Differences in recovery rate, length of stay and rate of weight gain between intervention groups were not statistically significant.
Incorporating point-of-use water treatment into outpatient treatment programmes for children with SAM increased nutritional recovery rates. No significant differences in recovery rates were observed between the different intervention groups, indicating that different water treatment approaches were equally effective in improving recovery.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have progressively attracted generous attention because of their versatile applications in solid state lighting and full color displays. High-efficiency is crucial for OLED devices being energy saving and to have a longer lifespan. Numerous approaches have been attempted to attain high-efficiency OLEDs via newly synthesized organic materials, light-extraction structure design and energy-efficient device architectures. The organic materials used in optoelectronic devices have inherently low dielectric constant. In this work, we demonstrate a comprehensive model to quantitatively investigate the role of dielectric constant of the electron transporting material on the electric field distribution, charge drift and exciton recombination probability across the emissive layer (EML) and electron transport layer (ETL) in organic light-emitting diode via commercialized electrical simulation package SETFOS.
To assess the quality of care provided by lady health workers (LHW) managing cases of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in the community.
Cross-sectional quality-of-care study.
The feasibility of the implementation of screening and treatment for uncomplicated SAM in the community by LHW was tested in Sindh Province, Pakistan. An observational, clinical prospective multicentre cohort study compared the LHW-delivered care with the existing outpatient health facility model.
LHW implementing treatment for uncomplicated SAM in the community.
Oedema was diagnosed conducted correctly for 87·5 % of children; weight and mid upper-arm circumference were measured correctly for 60·0 % and 57·4 % of children, respectively. The appetite test was conducted correctly for 42·0 % of cases. Of all cases of SAM without complications assessed during the study, 68·0 % received the correct medical and nutrition treatment. The proportion of cases that received the correct medical and nutrition treatment and key counselling messages was 4·0 %.
This quality-of-care study supports existing evidence that LHW are able to identify uncomplicated SAM, and a majority can provide appropriate nutrition and medical treatment in the community. However, the findings also show that their ability to provide the complete package with an acceptable level of care is not assured. Additional evidence on the impact of supervision and training on the quality of SAM treatment and counselling provided by LHW to children with SAM is required. The study has also shown that, as in other sectors, it is essential that operational challenges are addressed in a timely manner and that implementers receive appropriate levels of support, if SAM is to be treated successfully in the community.