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Terrorism remains a major threat and concern in many countries around the world. Children represent approximately 30% of the world population and in the event of a terrorist attack can either be primary targets, to include the possibility of abduction, or unintended victims. Children are unique in their vulnerabilities and therefore, require special consideration.
This study is a semi-quantitative epidemiological analysis of all terrorism-related pediatric fatalities and injuries sustained between 1970-2019. Data collection was performed using a retrospective database search through the Global Terrorism Database (GTD). Summaries of events including search terms associated with children were individually reviewed and those describing the deaths, injuries, or abduction of children were tallied.
Of the over 200,000 terror events, 2,302 events met inclusion criteria. This represented 1.14% of total events which involved death, injury, or abduction of children. Of 2,032 events a total of 2,275 pediatric fatal injuries (FI) were recorded, as well as 2,280 pediatric non-fatal injuries (NFI). The most common weapons used in all attacks involving the pediatric population were explosives (1539[66.8%]), firearms (543 [23.5%]), other (169 [7.3%]) and melee (83 [3.6%]). 275 of the 2,032 were related to abductions, with 71 cases involving the abduction of ten children or more.
Pediatric casualties in terrorist events represent a small proportion of overall victims, however, they have unique vulnerabilities, and when directly impacted by terrorism, can have long term physical and psychosocial sequelae, as well as a devastating emotional impact on the community.
Terrorism remains a major threat and concern in many countries around the world. Pediatric populations represent approximately 30% of the world population, and in the event of a terrorist attack, can either be primary targets, to include the possibility of abduction, or unintended victims. They are unique in their vulnerabilities and, therefore, require special consideration.
This study is a semi-quantitative, epidemiological analysis of all terrorism-related pediatric fatalities and injuries sustained from 1970-2019. Data collection was performed using a retrospective database search through the Global Terrorism Database (GTD). Summaries of events including search terms associated with pediatric population were individually reviewed and those describing the deaths, injuries, or abductions were tallied.
Of the over 200,000 terror events, 2,302 events met inclusion criteria. This represented 1.14% of total events which involved death, injury, or abduction. Of 2,032 events, a total of 2,275 pediatric fatal injuries (FI) were recorded, as well as 2,280 pediatric non-fatal injuries (NFI). The most common weapons used in all attacks involving the pediatric population were explosives (1,539 [66.8%]), firearms (543 [23.5%]), other (169 [7.3%]), and melee (83 [3.6%]). A total of 275 of the 2,032 events were related to abductions, with 71 cases involving the abduction of 10 individuals or more.
Pediatric casualties in terrorist events represent a small proportion of overall victims. However, it should be understood that the pediatric population has unique vulnerabilities, and when directly impacted by terrorism, can have long-term physical and psychosocial sequelae, as well as a devastating emotional impact on the community.
The purpose of this study was to assess impact of different volumes of exercise as well as cumulative moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on energy intake (EI) and diet quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2010(HEI-2010), across a 12-month weight maintenance intervention. Participants were asked to attend group behavioural sessions, eat a diet designed for weight maintenance and exercise either 150, 225 or 300 min/week. Dietary intake was assessed by 3-d food records, and MVPA was assessed by accelerometry. Two hundred and twenty-four participants (42·5 years of age, 82 % female) provided valid dietary data for at least one time point. There was no evidence of group differences in EI, total HEI-2010 score or any of the HEI-2010 component scores (all P > 0·05). After adjusting for age, sex, time, group and group-by-time interactions, there was an effect of cumulative MVPA on EI (1·08, P = 0·04), total HEI-2010 scores (–0·02, P = 0·003), Na (–0·006, P = 0·002) and empty energy scores (–0·007, P = 0·004. There was evidence of a small relationship between cumulative daily EI and weight (β: 0·00187, 95 % CI 0·001, P = 0·003). However, there was no evidence for a relationship between HEI total score (β: −0·006, 95 % CI 0·07, 0·06) or component scores (all P > 0·05) and change in weight across time. The results of this study suggest that increased cumulative MVPA is associated with clinically insignificant increases in EI and decreases in HEI.
Despite the substantial investment by Australian health authorities to improve the health of rural and remote communities, rural residents continue to experience health care access challenges and poorer health outcomes. Health literacy and community engagement are both considered critical in addressing these health inequities. However, the current focus on health literacy can place undue burdens of responsibility for healthcare on individuals from disadvantaged communities whilst not taking due account of broader community needs and healthcare expectations. This can also marginalize the influence of community solidarity and mobilization in effecting healthcare improvements.
The objective is to present a conceptual framework that describes community literacy, its alignment with health literacy, and its relationship to concepts of community engaged healthcare.
Community literacy aims to integrate community knowledge, skills and resources into the design, delivery and adaptation of healthcare policies, and services at regional and local levels, with the provision of primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare that aligns to individual community contexts. A set of principles is proposed to support the development of community literacy. Three levels of community literacy education for health personnel have been described that align with those applied to health literacy for consumers. It is proposed that community literacy education can facilitate transformational community engagement. Skills acquired by health personnel from senior executives to frontline clinical staff, can also lead to enhanced opportunities to promote health literacy for individuals.
The integration of health and community literacy provides a holistic framework that has the potential to effectively respond to the diversity of rural and remote Australian communities and their healthcare needs and expectations. Further research is required to develop, validate, and evaluate the three levels of community literacy education and alignment to health policy, prior to promoting its uptake more widely.
A total of 38 long-term care facilities within a region participated in a 3-month quality improvement initiative focused on environmental cleaning and disinfection. Significant improvements in daily and discharge cleaning were observed during the project period. Further study of the sustainability and clinical impact of this type of initiative is warranted.
Previous research in clinical, community, and school settings has demonstrated positive outcomes for the Secret Agent Society (SAS) social skills training program. This is designed to help children on the autism spectrum become more aware of emotions in themselves and others and to ‘problem-solve’ complex social scenarios. Parents play a key role in the implementation of the SAS program, attending information and support sessions with other parents and providing supervision, rewards, and feedback as their children complete weekly ‘home mission’ assignments. Drawing on data from a school-based evaluation of the SAS program, we examined whether parents’ engagement with these elements of the intervention was linked to the quality of their children’s participation and performance. Sixty-eight 8–14-year-olds (M age = 10.7) with a diagnosis of autism participated in the program. The findings indicated that ratings of parental engagement were positively correlated with children’s competence in completing home missions and with the quality of their contribution during group teaching sessions. However, there was a less consistent relationship between parental engagement and measures of children’s social and emotional skill gains over the course of the program.
One in four cases of acute aortic syndrome are missed. This national survey examined Canadian Emergency physicians’ opinion on risk stratification, the need for a clinical decision aid to risk stratify patients, and the required sensitivity of such a tool.
We surveyed 1,556 members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. We used a modified Dillman technique with a prenotification email and up to three survey attempts using electronic mail. Physicians were asked 21 questions about demographics, importance of certain high-risk features, investigation options, threshold for investigation, and if a clinical decision tool is required
We had a response rate of 32%. Respondents were 66% male, and 49% practicing >10 years, with 59% in an academic teaching hospital. A total of 93% reported a need for a clinical decision aid to risk stratify for acute aortic syndrome. A total of 99.6% of physicians were pragmatic accepting a non-zero miss-rate, two-thirds accepting <1%, and the remaining accepting a higher miss-rate.
Our national survey determined that emergency physicians would use a highly sensitive clinical decision aid to determine which patients are at low, medium, or high-risk for acute aortic syndrome. The majority of clinicians have a low threshold (<1%) for investigating for acute aortic syndrome, but accept that a zero miss-rate is not feasible.
This descriptive paper aims to describe the design and implementation of a community engaged primary healthcare strategy in rural Australia, the Primary Healthcare Registered Nurse: Schools-Based strategy. This strategy seeks to address the health, education and social inequities confronting children and adolescents through community engaged service provision and nursing practice.
There have been increasing calls for primary healthcare approaches to address rural health inequities, including contextualised healthcare, enhanced healthcare access, community engagement in needs and solutions identification and local-level collaborations. However, rural healthcare can be poorly aligned to community contexts and needs and be firmly entrenched in health systems, marginalising community participation.
This strategy has been designed to enhance nursing service and practice responsiveness to the rural context, primary healthcare principles, and community experiences and expectations of healthcare. The strategy is underpinned by a cross-sector collaboration between a local health district, school education and a university department of rural health. A research framework is being developed to explore strategy impacts for service recipients, cross-sector systems, and the establishment and maintenance of a primary healthcare nursing workforce.
Although in the early stages of implementation, key learnings have been acquired and strategic, relationship, resource and workforce gains achieved.
In recent years, researchers have been working towards creating a standard conceptual framework of food parenting. To understand how parents’ reports correspond with the proposed model, the current study examined parents’ reports of their feeding behaviours in the context of a newly established framework of food parenting.
Cross-sectional, with a two-week follow-up for a subset of the sample. Participants completed a quantitative and qualitative survey to assess food parenting. The survey included items from common food parenting instruments to measure the constructs posited in the framework. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to ascertain which items related most closely to one another and factors were mapped on to existing constructs.
Parents of children aged 2·5–7 years (n 496). Of these, 122 completed a two-week follow-up.
Analyses revealed eleven aspects of Structure (monitoring; distraction; family presence; meal/snack schedule; unstructured practices; healthy/unhealthy food availability; food preparation; healthy/unhealthy modelling; rules), ten aspects of Coercive Control (pressure to eat; using food to control emotions; food incentives to eat; food incentives to behave; non-food incentives to eat; restriction for health/weight; covert restriction; clean plate; harsh coercion) and seven aspects of Autonomy Promotion (praise; encouragement; nutrition education; child involvement; negotiation; responsive feeding; repeated offering). Content validity, assessed via parents’ open-ended explanations of their responses, was high, and test–retest reliability was moderate to high. Structure and Autonomy Promoting food parenting were highly positively correlated.
In general, parents’ responses provided support for the model, but suggested some amendments and refinements.
Field experiments were conducted for the control of perennial pepperweed with tillage and herbicides. Perennial pepperweed infests a wide range of soils and plant communities. These studies were conducted in native hay meadows, with wild-flooding irrigation and saline/alkaline soils. Such meadows are typical of livestock ranches throughout the Intermountain Area. Tillage with periodic disking over a 2-yr period resulted in no permanent reduction in perennial pepperweed cover. Applications of 2,4-D or glyphosate eliminated perennial pepperweed seed production and greatly reduced top growth but had no permanent influence on cover of the weed by the second season following application. Applications of chlorsulfuron in the spring at flowering, in late summer after hay harvesting, or in the autumn, were effective in suppressing perennial pepperweed for 2 yr or more following application.
Medusahead is an invasive annual grass that, once established, severely affects range-land productivity and stability. Medusahead builds large seedbanks in the litter and on the soil surface. Effective weed control of medusahead involves either inhibiting germination from the seedbank, eliminating the seedbank, or enhancing germination so that plants are available for control. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of nitrogen enrichment, immobilization, and nitrification inhibition treatments in the field on the size and germination status of medusahead seedbanks. The germination status of medusahead seeds in seedbanks was determined by periodically collecting field samples of surface soil and litter and bioassaying them in greenhouse emergence tests. Control seedbanks had increased seedling emergence with KNO3 or GA3 enrichment of the bioassay substrate. The combination of these two materials increased emergence. Nitrogen enrichment increased seedling establishment in the field. Carbon enrichment in the field decreased seedling establishment and increased medusahead seeds in seedbanks. Nitrapyrin treatment decreased medusahead in the field similar to carbon enrichment. In comparison to the control or other treatments, GA3 enrichment was not as effective in increasing emergence from nitrapyrin-treated bioassay samples. The combination of carbon and nitrapyrin treatments was very effective in eliminating medusahead emergence in the field, but in wetter years, it never completely eliminated medusahead seedling recruitment and subsequent reproduction. These treatments have promise for influencing succession in medusahead infestations if an adapted perennial species, capable of competing under low nitrogen levels, becomes available.
Depressed subjects have deficits in facialemotion recognition that resemble the deficits found in persons with focal right hemisphere brain damage. To locate the brain regions responsible for this problem, the authors imaged regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with H2O15 positron emission tomography in 10 mood-disordered patients, as well as in 10 age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects, while the subjects matched photographs for facial emotion or, as a control, facial identity. While matching faces for emotion, mood-disordered subjects had decreased rCBF activation bilaterally in their temporal lobes, as well as in the right insula, compared with healthy comparison subjects. Abnormal function of limbic and paraiimbic regions may partially explain the facial emotion-recognition deficits previously noted in depressed subjects.
Commercial farmers have been using polyethylene plastic mulch since the 1950s. Despite the affordability and effectiveness of polyethylene mulch, the disposal process is financially and environmentally costly. Biodegradable plastic mulches, an ecologically sustainable alternative to polyethylene mulch films, were introduced in the 1980s. Biodegradable plastic mulches can be tilled into the soil or composted at the end of the season, reducing the labor and environmental costs associated with plastic removal and disposal. However, research results are mixed as to the effectiveness, degradability and ease-of-use of biodegradable plastic mulches. In 2008–2012, researchers, funded by a USDA Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant, conducted surveys and focus groups in three different agricultural regions of the USA to better understand the barriers and bridges to the adoption of biodegradable plastic mulches for specialty crop production systems. Data on the experiences and views of specialty crop growers, agricultural extension agents, agricultural input suppliers, mulch manufacturers and other stakeholders showed that the major adoption barriers were insufficient knowledge, high cost and unpredictable breakdown. The major bridges to adoption were reduced waste, environmental benefits and interest in further learning. These findings are discussed with reference to the classic innovation diffusion model, specifically work on the innovation–decision process and the attributes of innovations. The study results can be used to guide the activities of those involved in the design, development and promotion of biodegradable plastic mulches for US specialty crop production systems.