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The purpose of the current study was to examine the validity of an FFQ utilised in the Food Retail: Evaluating Strategies for a Healthy Austin (FRESH Austin) study, designed to evaluate changes in the consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) in diverse low-income communities in Austin, TX.
The FRESH Austin FFQ was validated against three 24-h dietary recalls (24hDR). All dietary assessments were administered (in-person or by telephone) by trained investigators.
Recruitment was conducted at sites within the geographic areas targeted in the FRESH Austin recruitment. People at a community health clinic, a local health centre and a YMCA within the intervention area were approached by trained and certified data collectors, and invited to participate.
Among fifty-six participants, 83 % were female, 46 % were non-White, 24 % had income < $25 K/year and 30 % spoke only/mostly Spanish at home.
The FFQ and average of three 24hDR produce similar estimates of average total servings/d across FV (6·68 and 6·40 servings/d, respectively). Correlations produced measures from 0·01 for ‘Potatoes’ and 0·59 for ‘Other Vegetables’. Mean absolute percentage errors values were small for all FV, suggesting the variance of the error estimates was also small. Bland–Altman plots indicate acceptable levels of agreement between the two methods.
These outcomes indicate that the FRESH FFQ is a valid instrument for assessing FV consumption. The validation of the FRESH Austin FFQ provides important insights for evaluating community-based efforts to increase FV consumption in diverse populations.
The aims of this study were to examine the efficacy among various vitamin D supplementation regimens on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and determine the minimal dose rate required to achieve sufficient serum concentrations (≥75 nmol/l) among older adults in long-term care (LTC).
A 1-year medical history was abstracted from medical records, and a one-time blood draw to measure serum 25(OH)D concentrations was obtained. Individuals were stratified into vitamin D-supplemented and non-supplemented groups. The supplemented group was further categorised into four treatment forms: single-ingredient vitamin D2or3, multivitamin, Ca with vitamin D or combination of the three, and by daily prescribed doses: 0–9·9, 10–19·9, 20–49·9, 50–99·9 and >100 μg/d.
Five LTC communities in Austin, Texas.
One hundred seventy-three older (≥65 years) adults.
Of the participants, 62% received a vitamin D supplement and 55% had insufficient (≤75 nmol/l) 25(OH)D serum concentrations. Individuals receiving single-ingredient vitamin D2or3 supplementation received the highest daily vitamin D mean dose (72·5 μg/d), while combination of forms was the most frequent treatment (44%) with the highest mean serum concentration (108 nmol/l). All supplementation doses were successful at reaching sufficient serum concentrations, except those<20 μg/d. Using a prediction model, it was observed that 0·025 μg/d of vitamin D supplementation resulted in a 0·008 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations.
Based on the predictive equation, results suggest that supplementation of 37·5 μg/d of vitamin D2or3 or combination of vitamin D is most likely to achieve sufficient serum 25(OH)D concentrations in older adults in LTC.
The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between family meals and parental encouragement of healthy eating overall and by ethnicity.
Family meal frequency was measured with one item asking how many times in the past 7 d all or most of the family ate a meal together, which was then categorized to represent three levels of family meals (≤2 times, 3–6 times and ≥7 times). Parental encouragement of healthy eating assessed how often parents encouraged the student to eat fruits and vegetables, drink water, eat wholegrain bread, eat breakfast and drink low-fat milk (never to always). An overall scale of parental encouragement of healthy eating was created. Mixed-effect regression analyses were run controlling for gender, ethnicity, age and socio-economic status. Moderation by ethnicity was explored.
Participants included 2895 US eighth grade students participating in the Central Texas CATCH (Coordinated Approach To Child Health) Middle School Project (mean age 13·9 years; 24·5 % White, 52·7 % Hispanic, 13·0 % African-American, 9·8 % Other; 51·6 % female).
Eating more family meals was significantly associated with having parents who encouraged healthy eating behaviours (P for trend <0·001). The number of family meals was positively associated with encouragement of each of the healthy eating behaviours (P for trend <0·0001). There were no differences in the relationships by ethnicity of the students.
Families who eat together are more likely to encourage healthy eating in general. Interventions which promote family meals may include tips for parents to increase discussions about healthy eating.
We assessed serum homocysteine (tHcy) and folate concentrations among US adolescents before and after fortification of cereal-grain products with folic acid, and associations with demographic, behavioural and physiological factors.
Observational study conducted among participants of a randomized trial.
The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study.
Adolescents (n 2445) in grades 8 (pre-fortification, mean age 14 years) and 12 (post-fortification, mean age 18 years).
Average serum concentrations of tHcy, folate and vitamin B6 increased by 17 %, 16 % and 14 %, respectively, while serum concentrations of vitamin B12 decreased by 11 % post-fortification. Folic acid fortification provided, on average, an additional intake of 118 μg folate/d. Male sex (P < 0·0001) and white race (P = 0·0008) were associated with significantly greater increases in tHcy concentration, while increases in BMI (P = 0·006) and serum folate concentration (P < 0·0001) were associated with significant decreases in tHcy concentration. Female sex (P < 0·0001), non-smoking (P < 0·0001), use of multivitamins (P < 0·0001) and higher dietary intake of folate (P = 0·001) were associated with significantly greater increases in serum folate concentrations. From grade 8 to grade 12, the upward age trend in serum tHcy concentration was uninterrupted in its course (P > 0·50); whereas serum folic acid concentration showed a downward trend that incurred a discrete jump upward (17 % higher; P < 0·0001) with fortification. These trends differed significantly for males v. females (P < 0·001 for interaction).
Fortification had a significant impact on improving folate status but not serum tHcy concentrations among US adolescents.
Although many school-based diet and physical activity interventions have been designed and evaluated, relatively few have been tested for the after-school setting. After-school day-care programmes at either elementary schools or private locations provide a ready-made opportunity for health programmes that may be difficult to incorporate into an already-full school day. The purpose of this paper is to report on a pilot study of an after-school adaptation of the CATCH (Coordinated Approach To Child Health) elementary school programme called the CATCH Kids Club (CKC).
The CKC was pilot-tested and formatively evaluated in 16 Texas after-school programmes: eight in El Paso and eight in Austin (four intervention and four reference sites each). Evaluation consisted of direct observation of moderate to vigorous physical activity during play time, self-reported food intake and physical activity, and focus group interviews with after-school programme staff.
Students responded well to the physical activity and snack components and were less interested in the five-module education component. Routine staff training was a key variable in achieving proper implementation; the ideal would be a full day with repeated follow-up model teaching visits. Staff turnover was a logistic issue, as was programme leader readiness and interest in conducting the programme. Strong and significant effects were observed for the physical activity but not for the education component. The results of the physical education component suggest it is feasible, effective and ready for larger-scale evaluation or dissemination.
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