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Pure phase reference intensity ratio determinations were completed on eleven biotites ranging in Fe composition from χFe = 0.058 to χFe = 0.695, where χFe = Fe/(Fe + Mg). The crystal chemistry of biotites requires that the intensity of diffraction for the 00l reflections, and thus the corresponding reference intensity ratio, correlate with the Fe, Mg and Al in the octahedral sites. As Fe occupancy increases in the octahedral site, the Lki for the 00l reflections increases as does the value of ∣F∣2 computed using the Takeda and Ross (1975) biotite model. The ∣F∣2 trend closely parallels the experimental regression of Lki = 6.359χFe + 1.513 (R = 0.91). Observed mass absorption measurements completed by X-ray transmission show a similar trend with μo = 69.36χFe + 47.85 (R = 0.97). Calculated values of μ from biotite chemical analyses agree well with the measured values. These relationships may be used to predict the appropriate Lki needed for quantitative analysis of biotite-bearing specimens if the Fe and Mg content of the biotite can be determined.
A new quantitative X-ray powder diffraction (QXRPD) method has been developed to analyze polyphase crystalline mixtures. The unique approach employed in this method is the utilization of the full diffraction pattern of a mixture and its reconstruction as a weighted sum of diffraction patterns of the component phases. To facilitate the use of the new method, menu-driven interactive computer programs with graphics have been developed for the VAX series of computers. The analyst builds a reference database of component diffraction patterns, corrects the patterns for background effects, and determines the appropriate reference intensity ratios. This database is used to calculate the weight fraction of each phase in a mixture by fitting its diffraction pattern with a least-squares best-fit weighted sum of selected database reference patterns.
The new QXRPD method was evaluated using oxides found in ceramics, corrosion products, and other materials encountered in the laboratory. Experimental procedures have been developed for sample preparation and data collection for reference samples and unknowns. Prepared mixtures have been used to demonstrate the very good results that can be obtained with this method.
Synthesis and unit cell parameter refinement of 25 ferroelectric compounds with the tungsten bronze structure are reported. A general chemical formula for these compounds is (A1, A2, C) B10 O30, where specifically A1 and A2 = K, Na, Ba, Sr, Pb, La, Eu, Sm, Y, Bi; C = Li; and B = Nb, Ta, Ti, W. All compounds were prepared by solid state sintering at temperatures ranging from 1100°C to 1380°C. Refined cell parameters (tetragonal with space group P4bm), I/Icor values, calculated densities and Z values are included for the 25 compounds.
Quartz in dolostone can be determined quantitatively down to 0.03 weight percent using a standard preparation procedure for the sample and absolute integrated intensity measurements. Measurement reproducibilities of 3.2% were obtained. Calibration curves determined by spiking low-quartz dolostone allowed concentrations of 2.0 weight percent or lower to be established. Higher concentrations of quartz in some related soil samples were determined by comparing the absolute integrated intensity with that obtained from a pure quartz sample prepared in the same manner.