To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus-2), which underlies the current COVID-19 pandemic, among other tissues, also targets the central nervous system (CNS). The goal of this study is to investigate mechanisms of neuroinflammation in Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-treated mouse model and SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this research I will assay vascular reactivity of cerebral vessels to assess vascular dysfunction within the microcirculation. I will determine expression of proinflammatory cytokines, coagulation factors and AT1 receptors (AT1R) in isolated microvessels from the circle of Willis to assess inflammation, thrombosis and RAS activity in the microvasculature. LPS and SARS-CoV-2, are both associated with coagulopathies and because of that I will measure concentration of PAI-1, von Willebrand Factor, thrombin and D-dimer to assess the thrombotic pathway in the circulation. Histology and immunohistochemistry will assess immune cell type infiltration into the brain parenchyma, microglia activation and severity of neuroinflammation and neural injury. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that under conditions of reduced ACE2 (e.g., SARS-CoV-2 infection), AT1R activity is upregulated in the microvasculature. In the presence of an inflammatory insult, these AT1Rs promote endothelialitis and immunothrombosis through pro-thrombotic pathways and pro-inflammatory cytokine production leading to endothelial dysfunction in the microvasculature, blood brain barrier (BBB) injury, deficits in cognition and increased anxiety. We will test this hypothesis through 2 aims: Aim 1: Determine the role of the pro-injury arm of the RAS in the pathophysiology of the brain in animal models of neuroinflammation and COVID-19. Aim 1: Determine the role of the protective arm of the RAS in the pathophysiology of the brain in animal models of neuroinflammation and COVID-19. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study will provide insights that will complement on-going clinical trials on angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) in COVID-19. This research is a necessary first step in understanding mechanisms of brain pathogenesis that can set the groundwork for future studies of more complex models of disease.
Prolonged parturition duration has been widely demonstrated to be a risk factor for incidence of stillbirth. This study evaluated the supply of dietary fibre on the parturition duration, gut microbiota and metabolome using sows as a model. A total of 40 Yorkshire sows were randomly given diet containing normal level of dietary fibre (NDF, 17·5 % dietary fibre) or high level of dietary fibre (HDF, 33·5 % dietary fibre). Faecal microbiota profiled with 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, SCFA and metabolome in the faeces and plasma around parturition were compared between the dietary groups. Correlation analysis was conducted to further explore the potential associations between specific bacterial taxa and metabolites. Results showed that HDF diet significantly improved the parturition process as presented by the shorter parturition duration. HDF diet increased the abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes and multiple genera. Except for butyrate, SCFA levels in the faeces and plasma of sows at parturition were elevated in HDF group. The abundances of fifteen and twelve metabolites in the faeces and plasma, respectively, markedly differ between HDF and NDF sows. These metabolites are involved in energy metabolism and bacterial metabolism. Correlation analysis also showed associations between specific bacteria taxa and metabolites. Collectively, our study indicates that the improvement of parturition duration by high fibre intake in late gestation is associated with gut microbiota, production of SCFA and other metabolites, potentially serving for energy metabolism.
Climate changes over the past two millennia in the central part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence are documented in this paper with the aim of determining and understanding the natural climate variability and the impact of anthropogenic forcing at a regional scale. The palynological content (dinocysts, pollen, and spores) of the composite marine sediment core MSM46-03 collected in the Laurentian Channel was used to reconstruct oceanographic and climatic changes with a multidecadal temporal resolution. Sea-surface conditions, including summer salinity and temperature, sea-ice cover, and primary productivity, were reconstructed from dinocyst assemblages. Results revealed a remarkable cooling trend of about 4°C after 1230 cal yr BP (720 CE) and a culmination with a cold pulse dated to 170–40 cal yr BP (1780–1910 CE), which likely corresponds to the regional signal of the Little Ice Age. This cold interval was followed by a rapid warming of about 3°C. In the pollen assemblages, the decrease of Pinus abundance over the past 1700 yr suggests changes in wind regimes, likely resulting from increased southerly incursions of cold and dry Arctic air masses into southeastern Canada.
The most common treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) is antidepressant medication (ADM). Results are reported on frequency of ADM use, reasons for use, and perceived effectiveness of use in general population surveys across 20 countries.
Face-to-face interviews with community samples totaling n = 49 919 respondents in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys asked about ADM use anytime in the prior 12 months in conjunction with validated fully structured diagnostic interviews. Treatment questions were administered independently of diagnoses and asked of all respondents.
3.1% of respondents reported ADM use within the past 12 months. In high-income countries (HICs), depression (49.2%) and anxiety (36.4%) were the most common reasons for use. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), depression (38.4%) and sleep problems (31.9%) were the most common reasons for use. Prevalence of use was 2–4 times as high in HICs as LMICs across all examined diagnoses. Newer ADMs were proportionally used more often in HICs than LMICs. Across all conditions, ADMs were reported as very effective by 58.8% of users and somewhat effective by an additional 28.3% of users, with both proportions higher in LMICs than HICs. Neither ADM class nor reason for use was a significant predictor of perceived effectiveness.
ADMs are in widespread use and for a variety of conditions including but going beyond depression and anxiety. In a general population sample from multiple LMICs and HICs, ADMs were widely perceived to be either very or somewhat effective by the people who use them.
The safe closure of atrial septal defect with deficient posterior-inferior or inferior vena cava rim is a controversial issue. Few studies have been conducted on the closure of atrial septal defect with deficient posterior-inferior or inferior vena cava rim without fluoroscopy. This study evaluated the feasibility and safety of echocardiography-guided transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect with deficient posterior-inferior or inferior vena cava rim.
The data of 136 patients who underwent transcatheter atrial septal defect closure without fluoroscopy from March 2017 to March 2020 were retrospectively analysed. The patients were classified into the deficient (n = 45) and sufficient (n = 91) posterior-inferior or inferior vena cava rim groups. Procedure and the follow-up results were compared between the two groups.
Atrial septal defect indexed diameter and the device indexed diameter in the deficient rim group were both larger than that in the sufficient rim group (22.12 versus 17.38 mm/m2, p < 0.001; 24.77 versus 21.21 mm/m2, p = 0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference in the success rate of occlusion between two groups (97.78% in the deficient rim group versus 98.90% in the sufficient rim group, p = 1.000). During follow-up, the incidence of severe adverse cardiac events was not statistically significant (p = 0.551).
Atrial septal defect with deficient posterior-inferior or inferior vena cava rim can safely undergo transcatheter closure under echocardiography alone if precisely evaluated with transesophageal or transthoracic echocardiography and the size of the occluder is appropriate. The mid-term results after closure are similar to that for an atrial septal defect with sufficient rim.