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The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship of dietary fried fish consumption and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality.
Prospective cohort study among participants of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who resided in the USA.
The primary outcome measures included the hazard ratios (HR) of incident CVD including first incident fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke or myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality, based on cumulative average fish consumption ascertained at baseline.
Participants (n 16 479) were enrolled between 2003 and 2007, completed the self-administered Block98 FFQ and were free of CVD at baseline.
There were 700 cardiovascular events over a mean follow-up of 5·1 years. After adjustment for sociodemographic variables, health behaviours and other CVD risk factors, participants eating ≥2 servings fried fish/week (v. <1 serving/month) were at a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events (HR=1·63; 95 % CI 1·11, 2·40). Intake of non-fried fish was not associated with risk of incident CVD. There was no association found with dietary fried or non-fried fish intake and cardiovascular or all-cause mortality.
Fried fish intake of two or more servings per week is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Given the increased intake of fried fish in the stroke belt and among African Americans, these data suggest that dietary fried fish intake may contribute to geographic and racial disparities in CVD.
The imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) encodes a fetal mitogenic hormone protein (IGF-II) and has previously been shown to be associated with performance in dairy cattle. In this study we assessed genotype-phenotype associations between four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the bovine IGF2 locus on chromosome 29 and a range of performance traits related to milk production, animal growth and body size, fertility and progeny survival in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian sires. Two of the four SNPs (rs42196909 and IGF2.g-3815A>G), which were in strong linkage disequilibrium (r2=0·995), were associated with milk yield (P⩽0·01) and milk protein yield (P⩽0·05); the rs42196901 SNP was also associated (P⩽0·05) with milk fat yield. Associations (P⩽0·05) with milk fat percentage and milk protein percentage were observed at the rs42196901 and IGF2.g-3815A>G SNPs, respectively. The rs42196909 and IGF2.g-3815A>G SNPs were also associated with progeny carcass conformation (P⩽0·05), while an association (P⩽0·01) with progeny carcass weight was observed at the rs42194733 SNP locus. None of the four SNPs were associated with body size, fertility and progeny survival. These findings support previous work which suggests that the IGF2 locus is an important biological regulator of milk production in dairy cattle and add to an accumulating body of research showing that imprinted genes influence many complex performance traits in cattle.
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