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These three volumes, along with the forthcoming Volume 2D, the catalogue of metal and metal-related finds, present the results of a thorough, detailed study of the metals recovered during archaeological investigations in 1974 and 1975 at the village of Ban Chiang and three smaller sites in the northern part of northeast Thailand. At a time when little was known of Southeast Asian prehistory, the finding of very elaborately painted earthenware pottery vessels, probably prehistoric, at Ban Chiang stirred the interest not only of archaeologists, but also, unfortunately, from the standpoint of scientific investigation of the past, that of looters, dealers, and collectors of antiquarian art. In order to recover a sample of these vessels in their original depositional context, the Thailand Fine Arts Department and the University of Pennsylvania undertook one of the largest excavations of a prehistoric site carried out in Southeast Asia at the time. What subsequently caused added excitement in the media and the scientific community was the recovery of artefacts of iron that appeared to date to the second millennium BCE and of copper or bronze associated with dates in the fourth millennium BCE, perhaps as early as 3600 BCE, seeming to confirm similar early dates for bronze working from the nearby site of Non Nok Tha. Such early dates suggested the possibility of an independent development of metallurgy in Southeast Asia. Because of the importance of the excavation at Ban Chiang as a milestone in Thai and Southeast Asian archaeology, the site was later placed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Scientific quality and feasibility are part of ethics review by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). Scientific Review Committees (SRCs) were proposed to facilitate this assessment by the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) SRC Consensus Group. This study assessed SRC feasibility and impact at CTSA-affiliated academic health centers (AHCs).
SRC implementation at 10 AHCs was assessed pre/post-intervention using quantitative and qualitative methods. Pre-intervention, four AHCs had no SRC, and six had at least one SRC needing modifications to better align with Consensus Group recommendations.
Facilitators of successful SRC implementation included broad-based communication, an external motivator, senior-level support, and committed SRC reviewers. Barriers included limited resources and staffing, variable local mandates, limited SRC authority, lack of anticipated benefit, and operational challenges. Research protocol quality did not differ significantly between study periods, but respondents suggested positive effects. During intervention, median total review duration did not lengthen for the 40% of protocols approved within 3 weeks. For the 60% under review after 3 weeks, review was lengthened primarily due to longer IRB review for SRC-reviewed protocols. Site interviews recommended designing locally effective SRC processes, building buy-in by communication or by mandate, allowing time for planning and sharing best practices, and connecting SRC and IRB procedures.
The CTSA SRC Consensus Group recommendations appear feasible. Although not conclusive in this relatively short initial implementation, sites perceived positive impact by SRCs on study quality. Optimal benefit will require local or federal mandate for implementation, adapting processes to local contexts, and employing SRC stipulations.
Natural samples of the substituted basic Cu(II) chloride series, Cu4–xMx2+(OH)6Cl2(M = Zn, Ni, or Mg) were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in order to elucidate compositional boundaries associated with paratacamite and its congeners. The compositional ranges examined are Cu3.65Zn0.35(OH)6Cl2 – Cu3.36Zn0.64(OH)6Cl2 and Cu3.61Ni0.39(OH)6Cl2 – Cu3.13Ni0.87(OH)6Cl2, along with a single Mg-bearing phase. The majority of samples studied have trigonal symmetry (R3̄m) analogous to that of herbertsmithite (Zn) and gillardite (Ni), with a ≈ 6.8, c ≈ 14.0 Å. Crystallographic variations for these samples caused by composition are compared with both published and new data for the R3̄m sub-cell of paratacamite, paratacamite-(Mg) and paratacamite-(Ni). The observed trends suggest that the composition of end-members associated with the paratacamite congeners depend upon the nature of the substituting cation.
The recent development of in-situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in-situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in-situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.
The aim of the present study was to describe the energy, nutrient and crude v. disaggregated food intake measured using 7 d diet diaries (7dDD) for the full baseline Norfolk cohort recruited for the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) study, with emphasis on methodological issues. The first data collection took place between 1993 and 1998 in Norfolk, East Anglia (UK). Of the 30 445 men and women, aged 40–79 years, registered with a general practitioner invited to participate in the study, 25 639 came for a health examination and were asked to complete a 7dDD. Data from diaries with data recorded for at least 1 d were obtained for 99 % members of the cohort; 10 354 (89·8 %) of the men and 12 779 (91·5 %) of the women completed the diet diaries for all 7 d. Mean energy intake (EI) was 9·44 (sd 2·22) MJ/d and 7·15 (sd 1·66) MJ/d, respectively. EI remained approximately stable across the days, but there was apparent under-reporting among the participants, especially among those with BMI >25 kg/m2. Micronutrient density was higher among women than among men. In conclusion, under-reporting is an issue, but not more so than that found in national surveys. How foods were grouped (crude or disaggregated) made a difference to the estimates obtained, and comparison of intakes showed wide limits of agreement. The choice of variables influences estimates obtained from the food group data; while this may not alter the ranking of individuals within studies, this issue may be relevant when comparing absolute food intakes between studies.
Previous work has shown that hunger and food intake are lower in individuals on high-protein (HP) diets when combined with low carbohydrate (LC) intakes rather than with moderate carbohydrate (MC) intakes and where a more ketogenic state occurs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the difference between HPLC and HPMC diets was associated with changes in glucose and ketone body metabolism, particularly within key areas of the brain involved in appetite control. A total of twelve men, mean BMI 34·9 kg/m2, took part in a randomised cross-over trial, with two 4-week periods when isoenergetic fixed-intake diets (8·3 MJ/d) were given, with 30 % of the energy being given as protein and either (1) a very LC (22 g/d; HPLC) or (2) a MC (182 g/d; HPMC) intake. An 18fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan of the brain was conducted at the end of each dietary intervention period, following an overnight fast (n 4) or 4 h after consumption of a test meal (n 8). On the next day, whole-body ketone and glucose metabolism was quantified using [1,2,3,4-13C]acetoacetate, [2,4-13C]3-hydroxybutyrate and [6,6-2H2]glucose. The composite hunger score was 14 % lower (P= 0·013) for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet. Whole-body ketone flux was approximately 4-fold greater for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet (P< 0·001). The 9-fold difference in carbohydrate intakes between the HPLC and HPMC dietary interventions led to a 5 % lower supply of glucose to the brain. Despite this, the uptake of glucose by the fifty-four regions of the brain analysed remained similar for the two dietary interventions. In conclusion, differences in the composite hunger score observed for the two dietary interventions are not associated with the use of alternative fuels by the brain.
No longitudinal study has yet examined the association between substance use and brain volume changes in a population at high risk of schizophrenia.
To examine the effects of cannabis on longitudinal thalamus and amygdala-hippocampal complex volumes within a population at high risk of schizophrenia.
Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from individuals at high genetic risk of schizophrenia at the point of entry to the Edinburgh High-Risk Study (EHRS) and approximately 2 years later. Differential thalamic and amygdala-hippocampal complex volume change in high-risk individuals exposed (n = 25) and not exposed (n = 32) to cannabis in the intervening period was investigated using repeated-measures analysis of variance.
Cannabis exposure was associated with bilateral thalamic volume loss. This effect was significant on the left (F = 4.47, P = 0.04) and highly significant on the right (F=7.66, P=0.008). These results remained significant when individuals using other illicit drugs were removed from the analysis.
These are the first longitudinal data to demonstrate an association between thalamic volume loss and exposure to cannabis in currently unaffected people at familial high risk of developing schizophrenia. This observation may be important in understanding the link between cannabis exposure and the subsequent development of schizophrenia.
We explored the views of foundation doctors on psychiatry placements to inform further post development. Following criticism of some South Thames Foundation School (STFS) psychiatry placements, STFS staff reviewed existing information on post quality and 21 foundation doctors in psychiatry posts took part in three focus groups.
Trainees are concerned about the general quality of posts (including supervision and induction); isolation of mental health trusts from ‘acute’ trusts; the professional position of junior psychiatrists; and responsibilities related to the Mental Health Act and risk assessment. Requirements for posts to address these issues have been developed and are now being implemented locally.
The conclusions are relevant to the quality management of foundation posts in mental health trusts, responses to the Collins Report (2010) and future recruitment into psychiatry.
The Infinite Time Turing Machine model  of Hamkins and Kidder is, in an essential sense, a “Σ2-machine” in that it uses a Σ2Liminf Rule to determine cell values at limit stages of time. We give a generalisation of these machines with an appropriate Σn rule. Such machines either halt or enter an infinite loop by stage , again generalising precisely the ITTM case.
The collection of such machines taken together computes precisely those reals of the least model of analysis.
Metastasis is responsible for a large burden of morbidity and mortality among cancer patients, and currently few therapies specifically target metastatic disease. Further scientific dissection of the underlying pathways is required to pave the way for new therapeutic targets. This groundbreaking new text comprehensively covers the processes underlying cancer metastasis and the clinical treatment of metastatic disease. Whereas previous volumes have been compendia of laboratory research articles, the internationally renowned authors of this volume have summarized the state-of-the-art research in the metastasis field. A major section covers the cellular and molecular pathways of metastasis and experimental techniques and the systems and models applied in this field. Subsequently, the clinical aspects of the major cancer types are considered, focusing on disease-specific research and therapeutic approaches to metastatic disease. The focus is on novel pathophysiological insights and emerging therapies; future directions for research and unmet clinical needs are also discussed.