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Research in 1970 vaulted Becán to prominence on the landscape of great Maya centers. Mapping, excavation, and ceramic stratigraphy revealed that its enigmatic earthwork, first recorded archaeologically in 1934, was a fortification built at the end of the Preclassic period. Large-scale warfare thus unexpectedly turned out to have very deep roots in the Maya lowlands. The site's wider implications remained obscure, however, in the absence of dates and other inscriptions. The ever-increasing dependence on historical and iconographic information in our narratives, along with the invisibility of its Preclassic buildings and plazas, unfortunately marginalized Becán. Some colleagues even claimed that we have misinterpreted both the nature of the earthworks (not fortifications) and their dating (not Preclassic). We rehabilitate Becán by dispelling these claims and by showing that standard archaeological evidence, contextualized in what we know today, has much to say about Becán's role in lowland culture history. We identify intervals of crisis when the earthwork remained useful long after it was originally built, especially during the great hegemonic struggles of the Snake and Tikal dynasties, and introduce new ceramic and lithic data about Becán's settlement history and political entanglements. Our most important message is that inscriptions and iconography, for all their dramatic chronological detail and historical agency, must always be complemented by standard fieldwork.
We compute a presentation of the fundamental group of a higher-rank graph using a coloured graph description of higher-rank graphs developed by the third author. We compute the fundamental groups of several examples from the literature. Our results fit naturally into the suite of known geometrical results about higher-rank graphs when we show that the abelianization of the fundamental group is the homology group. We end with a calculation which gives a non-standard presentation of the fundamental group of the Klein bottle to the one normally found in the literature.
A field study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, LA, to evaluate the impact of reduced rates of halosulfuron on quizalofop activity in Louisiana rice production. Halosulfuron and a prepackaged mixture of halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron were evaluated at 0, 17, 35, or 53 g ai ha−1 and 34 or 53 g ai ha−1, respectively, in a mixture with quizalofop at 120 g ai ha−1. Control of barnyardgrass, red rice, and two non-acetyl-CoA carboxylase resistant rice lines, CL-111 and CLXL-745, were recorded at 14 and 28 d after treatment (DAT). The red rice, CL-111, and CLXL-745 represented a weedy rice population. Across all species evaluated at 14 DAT, all mixtures containing halosulfuron and halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron resulted in antagonism with an observed control of 79% to 90%, compared with an expected control of 96% to 99%. At 28 DAT, all mixtures containing halosulfuron resulted in neutral interactions for barnyardgrass control. Quizalofop mixed with halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron at the lower rate of 34 g ha−1 was able to overcome the antagonism compared with the higher rate of 53 g ha−1 for barnyardgrass control at 28 DAT. Both the high and the low rate of halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron resulted in antagonistic interaction for red rice, CL-111, and CLXL-745 control at 28 DAT. This research suggests that mixing quizalofop with halosulfuron plus thifensulfuron should be avoided, especially at the higher rate of 53 g ha−1.
To determine whether a hospital-wide universal gloving program resulted in increased hand hygiene compliance and reduced inpatient Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) rates.
We carried out a multiple-year before-and-after quasi-experimental quality improvement study. Gloving and hand hygiene compliance data as well as hospital-acquired infection rates were prospectively collected from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2017, by secret monitors.
The University of Rochester Strong Memorial Hospital, an 849-bed quaternary-care teaching hospital.
All adult inpatients with the exception of patients in the obstetrics unit.
A hospital-wide universal gloving protocol was initiated on January 1, 2016.
Hand hygiene compliance increased from 68% in 2015 reaching an average of 88% by 2017 (P < .0002). A 10% increase in gloving per unit was associated with a 1.13-fold increase in the odds of hand hygiene (95% credible interval, 1.12–1.14). The rates of CDI decreased from 1.05 infections per 1,000 patient days in 2015 to 0.74 in 2017 (P < .04).
A universal gloving initiative was associated with a statistically significant increase in both gloving and hand hygiene compliance. CDI rates decreased during this intervention.
A study was conducted at the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center’s H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station in 2017 and 2018 to evaluate the interaction between a prepackage mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin applied at 0, 760, 1,145, or 1,540 g ai ha−1 mixed with propanil at 0, 1,120, 2,240, or 4,485 g ai ha−1. A synergistic response occurred when barnyardgrass was treated with all rates of clomazone plus pendimethalin mixed with either rate of propanil evaluated at 56 d after treatment (DAT). Unlike barnyardgrass, an antagonistic response occurred in yellow nutsedge used as a control when treated with 760 and 1,540 g ha−1 of clomazone plus pendimethalin mixed with 1,120 or 22,40 g ha−1 of propanil at 28 DAT; however, 1,145 g ha−1 of clomazone plus pendimethalin mixed with 4,485 g ha−1 of propanil resulted in a neutral interaction. At 28 DAT, rice flatsedge treated with all herbicide mixtures resulted in neutral interactions. The synergism of clomazone plus pendimethalin applied at 1,540 g ha−1 mixed with propanil applied at 2,240 or 4,485 g ha−1 to control barnyardgrass resulted in an increased rough rice yield compared with 760 or 1,145 g ha−1 of clomazone plus pendimethalin mixed with propanil applied at 1,120 or 2,240 g ha−1. These results indicate that if barnyardgrass and rice flatsedge are present in a rice field the prepackage mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin mixed with propanil can be an option for growers. However, if yellow nutsedge infest the area other herbicides may be needed.
The object described and discussed in this paper is a recently found Anglo-Saxon strap-end. Although incomplete, the strap-end is of interest in view of its rarity in being made of silver, of its decoration and of it containing an inscribed text. One part of the decoration is a depiction of the agnus dei. In the discussion, the decoration on the strap-end, and its significance, is set in the context of other instances of the agnus dei, both on artefacts and in manuscripts, from late Anglo-Saxon England.
The Taunton Stop Line was a defensive work built in the second half of 1940 to contain a possible German invasion of the south-west peninsula of Britain. The line ran across the ‘waist of the South West’ from the mouth of the river Parrett (in Somerset) to the mouth of the River Axe at Seaton (in Devon). This was a massive feat of construction involving both military and civilian personnel working under the threat of an imminent German invasion. Recently, some fifty contemporary sketches have come to light that were used to show the builders how to camouflage the individual pillboxes and emplacements. Discovering that many of these drawings were by well-known artists has led to an investigation of their role, an evaluation of their contribution to the camouflage, its effectiveness and limitations, and how this influenced subsequent army camouflage doctrine. They are believed to be the only such set of drawings to have survived.
A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, Louisiana, to evaluate the interactions of quizalofop and a mixture of propanil plus thiobencarb applied sequentially or mixed to control weedy rice and barnyardgrass. Visual weed control evaluations occurred at 14, 28, and 42 d after treatment (DAT). Quizalofop was applied at 120 g ai ha−1 at 7, 3, and 1 d before and after propanil plus thiobencarb were each applied at 3,360 g ai ha−1. In addition, quizalofop was applied alone and in a mixture with propanil plus thiobencarb at day 0. Control of red rice ‘CL-111’ and ‘CLXL-745’ was greater than 91% when quizalofop was applied alone at day 0, similar to control for quizalofop applied 7, 3, and 1 d prior to propanil plus thiobencarb at all evaluation dates. Control of the same weeds treated with quizalofop plus propanil plus thiobencarb applied in a mixture at day 0 was 70% to 76% at each evaluation date, similar to quizalofop applied 1 or 3 d after propanil plus thiobencarb. A similar trend in control of barnyardgrass by 88% to 97% occurred when quizalofop was applied alone and by 48% to 53% at 14, 28, and 42 DAT when the mixture was used. ‘PVL01’ rough rice yield was 4,060 kg ha−1 when treated with quizalofop alone; however, yield was reduced to 3,180 kg ha−1 when it was treated with quizalofop mixed with propanil plus thiobencarb at day 0, similar to PVL01 rice treated with quizalofop 1 or 3 d following the propanil plus thiobencarb application.
A field study was conducted during the 2016 and 2017 crop seasons at the LSU AgCenter H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station to evaluate weed control and rice yield after quizalofop-p-ethyl applications in water-seeded coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)–resistant ‘PVLO1’ long-grain rice production utilizing different flood systems, application timings, and quizalofop rates. The initial application of quizalofop was applied at five timings beginning when ‘PVLO1’ rice was at the coleoptile stage (PEG) through the one- to two-tiller stage. A total quizalofop rate of 240 g ai ha–1 was split into two applications: 97 followed by 143 g ha–1 or 120 followed by 120 g ai ha–1 in both pinpoint and delayed flood water-seeded management systems. A second quizalofop application was applied 14 d after initial treatment (DAIT). At 14 DAIT, a reduction in control of barnyardgrass and red rice was observed by delaying the initial quizalofop application to the two- to four-tiller stage compared with rice treated at earlier growth stages. At 42 DAIT, control of barnyardgrass was 94% to 96%, and red rice was 98% following the second application of quizalofop, regardless of initial application timing. Rice treated with quizalofop at the PEG and two- and three-leaf stage resulted in a rice height of 104 cm at harvest compared with 96 to 100 cm when the initial application of quizalofop was delayed to later growth stages. Applying the initial application of quizalofop to rice at the PEG timing in the pinpoint or the delayed flood system resulted in a total gross value per hectare of $450 and $590, respectively. Within each flood system, delaying the initial application of quizalofop to the one- to two-tiller stage resulted in a gross per-hectare value reduction of $100 ha-1 in the pinpoint flood and $110 ha-1 in the delayed flood.
Acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-resistant rice allows quizlaofop-p-ethyl to be applied as a POST control of troublesome grass weeds. A field study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, LA, to evaluate the influence of a crop oil concentrate (COC), a silicon-based surfactant plus a nitrogen source (SNS), or a high-concentrate COC (HCOC) in overcoming the grass weed control antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl when mixed with bispyribac-Na. Quizalofop-p-ethyl was applied at 120 g ai ha−1, bispyribac-Na was applied at 34 g ai ha−1, and all adjuvants were applied at 1% vol/vol. Antagonistic interactions were observed at 14 d after treatment (DAT) when quizalofop-p-ethyl was mixed with bispyribac-Na with no adjuvant for control of barnyardgrass, the non–ACCase-tolerant rice cultivars ‘CL-111’ and ‘CLXL-745’, and red rice. At 14 DAT, antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl for control of barnyardgrass was observed when mixed with bispyribac-Na plus COC, SNS, or HCOC, with an observed control of 43%, 63%, and 86%, respectively, compared with an expected control of 95% for quizalofop-p-ethyl alone. However, the antagonism of quizalofop-p-ethyl when mixed with bispyribac-Na plus HCOC for barnyardgrass control at 14 DAT was overcome by 28 DAT, with an observed control of 91%, compared with an expected control of 97%. Synergistic or neutral interactions were observed at 14 and 28 DAT when COC, SNS, or HCOC was added to a mixture of quizalofop-p-ethyl plus bispyribac-Na for CL-111, CLXL-745, and red rice control. According to the results of this study, HCOC is the most effective adjuvant for quizalofop-p-ethyl and bispyribac-Na mixtures for control of weedy rice and barnyardgrass.
A study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, LA, to evaluate quizalofop at 120 g ai ha−1 applied independently or in a mixture with clomazone, pendimethalin, clomazone plus pendimethalin, or a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin when PVLO1 rice reached the two- to three-leaf stage. A second application of quizalofop at 120 g ha−1 was applied 21 d after the initial application. At 7 days after treatment (DAT), antagonism of quizalofop occurred when mixed with clomazone at 334 g ai ha−1, clomazone at 334 g ai ha−1 plus pendimethalin at 810 g ai ha−1, or a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin at 334 plus 810 g ai ha−1, respectively, when applied to barnyardgrass. At 7 DAT, a neutral interaction occurred with a mixture of quizalofop plus pendimethalin at 810 g ha−1. These data indicate the antagonism of quizalofop was overcome at 14, 28, and 42 DAT with a neutral interaction for barnyardgrass control, 94% to 98%, with all herbicide mixtures evaluated. A neutral interaction occurred for CL-111, CLXL-745, and red rice control when treated with all the herbicide mixtures evaluated across all evaluation dates. Rice yield decreased when not treated with the initial quizalofop application.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
A study was conducted at the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center’s H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station in 2017 and 2018 to evaluate a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin applied delayed preemergence (DPRE) or POST within an herbicide residual overlay with saflufenacil, clomazone, or quinclorac. POST applications included penoxsulam or halosulfuron in combination with the second residual application. No differences were observed in barnyardgrass control (92% to 98%) at 14 days after treatment (DAT). At 42 DAT, barnyardgrass treated with clomazone plus pendimethalin in combination with either clomazone or quinclorac at either timing was controlled 95% to 96%. However, when saflufenacil was applied PRE, regardless of the POST herbicide or when saflufenacil was applied POST with halosulfuron, barnyardgrass control was reduced to 78% to 81%, compared with 95% to 96% with the control with all other residual combinations. Yellow nutsedge and rice flatsedge control increased when treated with halosulfuron compared with penoxsulam across all evaluation dates. At 28 and 42 DAT, texasweed treated with saflufenacil PRE, regardless of POST applications, was controlled 83% and 87%, respectively, and this was greater control than provided by clomazone or quinclorac applied PRE regardless of POST herbicide program.
A glasshouse study was conducted on the Louisiana State University campus in Baton Rouge, LA, to evaluate the control of brook crowngrass, rice cutgrass, southern watergrass, and water paspalum. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 g ai ha−1 to each grass species at the 3- to 4-leaf or 1- to 2-stolon stage of growth. Brook crowngrass treated with florpyrauxifen was controlled 71% at 21 d after treatment. Southern watergrass and water paspalum control did not exceed 56% and 36%, respectively, across all evaluations. Rice cutgrass treated with florpyrauxifen did not reach 15% control. Plants treated with florpyrauxifen, except rice cutgrass, displayed reduction in leaf number, stolon number, plant height, and plant fresh weight. These results indicate florpyrauxifen-benzyl can help manage a brook crowngrass infestation and suppress southern watergrass. However, florpyrauxifen-benzyl has little to no activity on water paspalum and rice cutgrass, and other management options should be employed if these weeds are present.
A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 near Crowley, LA, to evaluate antagonistic, synergistic, or neutral interactions of quizalofop when mixed with contact herbicides labeled for use in rice production. Quizalofop was applied at 120 g ai ha−1. Mixture herbicides included bentazon at 1,050 g ai ha−1, carfentrazone at 18 g ai ha−1, propanil at 3,360 g ai ha−1, saflufenacil at 25 g ai ha−1, and thiobencarb at 3,360 g ai ha−1. A second application of quizalofop at 120 g ha−1 was made at 28 d after the initial application (DAIT) to evaluate control of weeds escaping the initial treatment. At 14 and 28 DAIT, red rice, ‘CLXL-745’, and ‘CL-111’ treated with quizalofop plus propanil indicated an antagonistic response with an observed control of 69% to 71% compared with an expected control of 92% to 94%. Barnyardgrass treated with the same mixture also indicated an antagonistic response at 14 and 28 DAIT with an observed control of 16% compared with an expected control of 94%. Barnyardgrass treated with quizalofop plus saflufenacil indicated an antagonistic response at 14 DAIT; however, the same mixture produced a neutral response by 28 DAIT. In addition, a second application of quizalofop was not able to overcome the antagonism observed with a quizalofop plus propanil mixture at 14 and 28 DAIT for red rice, CLXL-745, CL-111, or barnyardgrass control. Quizalofop mixed with carfentrazone or thiobencarb produced a neutral response for all weeds evaluated at each evaluation date.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
A glasshouse study was established at Louisiana State University campus in Baton Rouge, LA, to evaluate the control of fall panicum and Nealley’s sprangletop treated with florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Florpyrauxifen was applied at 30 g ai ha–1 to each grass species at the three- to four-leaf and one- to two-tiller stages of growth. At 21 d after treatment (DAT), fall panicum control was 91% when treated with florpyrauxifen at the three- to four-leaf stage, and Nealley’s sprangletop control was 78% to 82%, regardless of application timing 21 DAT. Leaf number, tiller number, plant height, and plant fresh weight were reduced when fall panicum and Nealley’s sprangletop were treated with florpyrauxifen. This information can be useful for developing weed management strategies with this herbicide for rice production, and it provides an additional mode of action to help manage and/or delay the development of herbicide-resistant weeds.
Two field studies were conducted in Louisiana to determine the impact of Nealley’s sprangletop on rough rice yield under multiple environments in 2014, 2015, and 2016. The first study evaluated optimal timings of Nealley’s sprangletop removal for optimizing rough rice yields. The second study evaluated the impact of Nealley’s sprangletop densities on rough rice yield. Nealley’s sprangletop was removed with applications of fenoxaprop at 122 g ai ha–1 at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 d after emergence (DAE). Nealley’s sprangletop removal at 7 and 14 DAE resulted in higher rough rice yields of 7,880 and 6,960 kg ha–1, respectively, when compared with the rice from the season-long Nealley’s sprangletop competition with a 6,040 kg ha-1 yield. Delaying herbicide application from 7 DAE to 42 DAE resulted in a yield loss of 1,740 kg ha–1. Over the 35-d delay in application, rough rice yield loss from Nealley’s sprangletop interference was equivalent to 50 kg ha–1 d–1. Nealley’s sprangletop densities were established at 1, 3, 7, 13, and 26 plants m–2 by transplanting Nealley’s sprangletop when rice reached the one- to two-leaf stage. At Nealley’s sprangletop densities of 1 to 26 plants m–2, rough rice yields were reduced 10 to 270 kg ha–1, compared with the rice from weed-free plots. Based on regression analysis, Nealley’s sprangletop densities of 1, 35, 70, and 450 plants m–2 reduced rough rice yield 0.14%, 5%, 10%, and 50%, respectively.