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Little is known about when youth may be at greatest risk for attempting suicide, which is critically important information for the parents, caregivers, and professionals who care for youth at risk. This study used adolescent and parent reports, and a case-crossover, within-subject design to identify 24-hour warning signs (WS) for suicide attempts.
Adolescents (N = 1094, ages 13 to 18) with one or more suicide risk factors were enrolled and invited to complete bi-weekly, 8–10 item text message surveys for 18 months. Adolescents who reported a suicide attempt (survey item) were invited to participate in an interview regarding their thoughts, feelings/emotions, and behaviors/events during the 24-hours prior to their attempt (case period) and a prior 24-hour period (control period). Their parents participated in an interview regarding the adolescents’ behaviors/events during these same periods. Adolescent or adolescent and parent interviews were completed for 105 adolescents (81.9% female; 66.7% White, 19.0% Black, 14.3% other).
Both parent and adolescent reports of suicidal communications and withdrawal from social and other activities differentiated case and control periods. Adolescent reports also identified feelings (self-hate, emotional pain, rush of feelings, lower levels of rage toward others), cognitions (suicidal rumination, perceived burdensomeness, anger/hostility), and serious conflict with parents as WS in multi-variable models.
This study identified 24-hour WS in the domains of cognitions, feelings, and behaviors/events, providing an evidence base for the dissemination of information about signs of proximal risk for adolescent suicide attempts.
Data from a national survey of 348 U.S. sports field managers were used to examine the effects of participation in Cooperative Extension events on the adoption of turfgrass weed management practices. Of the respondents, 94% attended at least one event in the previous three years. Of this 94%, 97% reported adopting at least one practice as a result of knowledge gained at an Extension turfgrass event. Half of the respondents adopted four or more practices; a third adopted five or more practices. Non-chemical, cultural practices were the most-adopted practices (65% of respondents). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine factors explaining practice adoption and Extension event attendance. Compared to attending one event, attending three events increased total adoption by an average of one practice. Attending four or more events increased total adoption by two practices. Attending four or more events (compared to one event) increased the odds of adopting six individual practices by 3- to 6-fold, depending on the practice. This suggests practice adoption could be enhanced by encouraging repeat attendance among past Extension event attendees. Manager experience was a statistically significant predictor of the number of Extension events attended, but a poor direct predictor of practice adoption. Experience does not appear to increase adoption directly, but indirectly, via its impact on Extension event attendance. In addition to questions about weed management generally, the survey asked questions about annual bluegrass management, specifically. Respondents were asked to rank seven sources of information for their helpfulness in managing annual bluegrass. There was no single dominant information source, but Extension was ranked as the most helpful more than any other source (by 22% of the respondents) and was ranked among the top three by 53%, closely behind field representative/local distributor sources at 54%.
Adverse effects are a common concern when prescribing and reviewing medication, particularly in vulnerable adults such as older people and those with intellectual disability. This paper describes the development of an app giving information on side-effects, called Medichec, and provides a description of the processes involved in its development and how drugs were rated for each side-effect. Medications with central anticholinergic action, dizziness, drowsiness, hyponatraemia, QTc prolongation, bleeding and constipation were identified using the British National Formulary (BNF) and frequency of occurrence of these effects was determined using the BNF, product information and electronic searches, including PubMed.
Medications were rated using a traffic light system according to how commonly the adverse effect was known to occur or the severity of the effect.
Medichec can facilitate access to side-effects information for multiple medications, aid clinical decision-making, optimise treatment and improve patient safety in vulnerable adults.
How might attention to the mechanisms of stage licensing help us to think specifically about the politics and aesthetics of on- and off-stage space in eighteenth-century drama? This essay addresses this question by looking at John St. John’s The Island of St. Marguerite, a musical afterpiece first staged at Drury Lane in November 1789. Using a spectacular retelling of the ‘Man in the Iron Mask’ story to mount a barely coded staging of the storming of the Bastille, this play was the first attempt by one of London’s royal playhouses to respond directly to the early events of the French Revolution. But the two Larpent manuscripts for Island show just how much had to be expunged and changed before the examiner of plays would license it. In particular, this essay argues, the cuts and annotations of the examiner (and possibly also John Philip Kemble, Drury Lane’s acting managing) disclose an institutional discomfort with the off-stage spaces – besieged walls, subterranean prison cells, sites of execution – that the audience are never taken to and yet must picture for themselves if what is actually unfolding before them is to make sense. Attention to these manuscripts thus takes us towards a deeper understanding of the play of visibility, of the texture of sensory and extra-sensory experience, in the Georgian theatre.
The use of clozapine demands regular monitoring of patients’ clozapine blood levels. Assays are usually performed in a central laboratory with results available only after several days. The South London and Maudsley NHS Trust wanted to implement a clozapine Point-of-Care (POC) capillary blood test that would provide the benefits of immediate results.
The MyCare Insite, a small (2.2 kg) tabletop analyser was used. The Insite can readily be connected to electronic health records. Insite device has been fully validated but to achieve the benefit of clozapine POC testing, other factors beyond the test validation needed to be considered. We developed tools, software, and processes to guide health professionals on why and when to measure clozapine blood levels, on what to do with test results, and systems for documentation and tracking of patients’ test results. In addition, the device supplier conducted staff training to ensure consistent and correct testing. Finally, users were certified as qualified based on demonstrated proficiency.
We have fully implemented POC capillary clozapine testing across four geographic sites.. Patients and staff preferred capillary finger stick testing over venous draws. Patients’ engagement with their results was better than with laboratory testing. Real-time testing for adherence was possible for patients admitted on clozapine. It was also possible to make rapid dose adjustments based on near immediate plasma level results. Patient safety was increased since toxic levels could be quickly detected. Clinical decision-making was expedited as results were available immediately (< 7 minutes). The utility of the testing meant that the length of hospital stays was reduced as discharges were not delayed pending a laboratory result.
Clozapine POC blood level testing was successfully implemented at our institution achieving the expected benefits of clozapine POC testing with near immediate results. The new process improves clozapine management, patient engagement and reduces inpatient bed stays.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is highly prevalent in prison populations, with an estimated prevalence of 51%-82% according to a 2018 review. TBI has been linked to higher rates of interpersonal violence, recidivism, suicide, higher drop-out rates in rehabilitation programmes, and lower age of first conviction. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of interpersonal violence, and previous TBI. Little is known about prevalence of TBI or ADHD amongst inpatients in secure psychiatric settings in the UK. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of TBI and ADHD in inpatients admitted to a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to low and medium secure units across three London mental health NHS trusts.
60 male participants were identified through prospective purposive sampling. Three questionnaires were administered: the Brain Injury screening Index (BISI); Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1 (ASRS); and the Brief-Barkley Adult ADHD Rating scale (B-BAARS). We also reviewed medical records of participants, age, psychiatric diagnoses, level of education, and convictions for violent and/or non-violent offences, number of admissions, and length of current admission. Ethical approval was granted by the local research ethics committee
67.8% of participants screened positive for a history of head injury, and 68.3% and 32.2% screened positive on the ASRS and B-BAARS respectively. 38.33% recorded greater than one head injury on the BISI. The most commonly recorded psychiatric diagnoses were schizophrenia (43.33%), schizoaffective disorder (23.33%), Bipolar Affective Disorder (11.67%), and Unspecified Non-Organic Psychosis (10.00%). Screening positive on ASRS was associated with screening positive for previous head injuries BISI (p = 0.01, ꭕ2). No other statistical associations were identified.
A relatively high proportion of participants screened positive for head injury and ADHD in this population. A history of head injury was associated with positive screening on the ASRS, which is consistent with previously reported associations between these conditions in other populations. A similar relationship was not seen with the B-BAARS however, and it is notable that fewer participants in the sample screened positive on the B-BAARS than using the ASRS. Few (n = 5) patients were able to provide detailed descriptions of head injuries using the BISI, suggesting that the BISI may not be suitable in this specific population as a screening tool.
The antipsychotic aripiprazole is often used in the treatment of first-episode psychosis. Measuring aripiprazole blood levels provides an objective measure of treatment adherence, but this currently involves taking a venous blood sample and sending to a laboratory for analysis.
To detail the development, validation and utility of a new point of care (POC) test for finger-stick capillary blood concentrations of aripiprazole.
Analytical performance (sensitivity, precision, recovery and linearity) of the assay were established using spiked whole blood and control samples of varying aripiprazole concentration. Assay validation was performed over a 14-month period starting in July 2021. Eligible patients were asked to provide a finger-stick capillary sample in addition to their usual venous blood sample. Capillary blood samples were tested by the MyCare™ Insite POC analyser, which provided measurement of aripiprazole concentration in 6 min, and the venous blood sample was tested by the standard laboratory method.
A total of 101 patients agreed to measurements by the two methods. Venous blood aripiprazole concentrations as assessed by the laboratory method ranged from 17 to 909 ng/mL, and from 1 to 791 ng/mL using POC testing. The correlation coefficient between the two methods (r) was 0.96 and there was minimal bias (slope 0.91, intercept 4 ng/ml).
The MyCare Insite POC analyser is sufficiently accurate and reliable for clinical use. The availability of this technology will improve the assessment of adherence to aripiprazole and the optimising of aripiprazole dosing.
To minimise infection during COVID-19, the clozapine haematological monitoring interval was extended from 4-weekly to 12-weekly intervals in South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust.
To investigate the impact of this temporary policy change on clinical and safety outcomes.
All patients who received clozapine treatment with extended (12-weekly) monitoring in a large London National Health Service trust were included in a 1-year mirror-image study. A comparison group was selected with standard monitoring. The proportion of participants with mild to severe neutropenia and the proportion of participants attending the emergency department for clozapine-induced severe neutropenia treatment during the follow-up period were compared. Psychiatric hospital admission rates, clozapine dose and concomitant psychotropic medication in the 1 year before and the 1 year after extended monitoring were compared. All-cause clozapine discontinuation at 1-year follow-up was examined.
Of 569 participants, 459 received clozapine with extended monitoring and 110 controls continued as normal. The total person-years were 458 in the intervention group and 109 in the control group, with a median follow-up time of 1 year in both groups. During follow-up, two participants (0.4%) recorded mild to moderate neutropenia in the intervention group and one (0.9%) in the control group. There was no difference in the incidence of haematological events between the two groups (IRR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.02–28.15, P = 0.29). All neutropenia cases in the intervention group were mild, co-occurring during COVID-19 infection. The median number of admissions per patient during the pre-mirror period remained unchanged (0, IQR = 0) during the post-mirror period. There was one death in the control group, secondary to COVID-19 infection.
There was no evidence that the incidence of severe neutropenia was increased in those receiving extended monitoring.
Acute behavioural disturbance is relatively common during the perinatal period. The management of agitation in pregnant women is similar to that in the general population, although with some additional considerations, such as modifications to restraint techniques, careful medication selection, monitoring of maternal and fetal well-being and the importance of a debrief. There are benefits of agreeing a pre-determined care plan for women who are at risk.
Behavioral health treatment disparities by race and ethnicity are well documented across the criminal legal system. Despite criminal legal settings such as drug treatment courts (DTCs) increasingly adopting evidence-based programs (EBPs) to improve care, there is a dearth of research identifying strategies to advance equitable implementation of EBPs and reduce racial/ethnic treatment disparities. This paper describes an innovative approach to identify community- and provider-generated strategies to support equitable implementation of an evidence-based co-occurring mental health and substance use disorder intervention, called Maintaining Independence and Sobriety through Systems Integration, Outreach and Networking-Criminal Justice (MISSION-CJ), in DTCs.
Guided by the Health Equity Implementation Framework, qualitative interviews and surveys will assess factors facilitating and hindering equitable implementation of MISSION-CJ in DTCs among 30 Black/African American and/or Hispanic/Latino persons served and providers. Concept mapping with sixty Black/African American and/or Hispanic/Latino persons served and providers will gather community- and provider-generated strategies to address identified barriers. Finally, an advisory board will offer iterative feedback on the data to guide toolkit development and inform equitable implementation of MISSION-CJ within DTCs.
The paper illustrates a protocol of a study based in community-engaged research and implementation science to understand multilevel drivers of racial/ethnic disparities in co-occurring disorder treatment and identify opportunities for intervention and improvements within criminal legal settings.
We assessed patterns of enteric infections caused by 14 pathogens, in a longitudinal cohort study of sequelae in British Columbia (BC) Canada, 2005–2014. Our population cohort of 5.8 million individuals was followed for an average of 7.5 years/person; during this time, 40 523 individuals experienced 42 308 incident laboratory-confirmed, provincially reported enteric infections (96.4 incident infections per 100 000 person-years). Most individuals (38 882/40 523; 96%) had only one, but 4% had multiple concurrent infections or more than one infection across the study. Among individuals with more than one infection, the pathogens and combinations occurring most frequently per individual matched the pathogens occurring most frequently in the BC population. An additional 298 557 new fee-for-service physician visits and hospitalisations for enteric infections, that did not coincide with a reported enteric infection, also occurred, and some may be potentially unreported enteric infections. Our findings demonstrate that sequelae risk analyses should explore the possible impacts of multiple infections, and that estimating risk for individuals who may have had a potentially unreported enteric infection is warranted.
Clozapine is licensed for treatment-resistant psychosis and remains underutilised. This may berelated to the stringent haematological monitoring requirements that are mandatory in most countries. We aimed to compare guidelines internationally and develop a novel Stringency Index. We hypothesised that the most stringent countries would have increased healthcare costs and reduced prescription rates.
We conducted a literature review and survey of guidelines internationally. Guideline identification involved a literature review and consultation with clinical academics. We focused on the haematological monitoring parameters, frequency and thresholds for discontinuation and rechallenge after suspected clozapine-induced neutropenia. In addition, indicators reflecting monitoring guideline stringency were scored and visualised using a choropleth map. We developed a Stringency Index with an international panel of clozapine experts, through a modified-Delphi-survey. The Stringency Index was compared to health expenditure per-capita and clozapine prescription per 100 000 persons.
One hundred twocountries were included, from Europe (n = 35), Asia (n = 24), Africa (n = 20), South America (n = 11), North America (n = 7) and Oceania and Australia (n = 5). Guidelines differed in frequency of haematological monitoring and discontinuation thresholds. Overall, 5% of included countries had explicit guidelines for clozapine-rechallenge and 40% explicitly prohibited clozapine-rechallenge. Furthermore, 7% of included countries had modified discontinuation thresholds for benign ethnic neutropenia. None of the guidelines specified how long haematological monitoring should continue. The most stringent guidelines were in Europe, and the least stringent were in Africa and South America. There was a positive association (r = 0.43, p < 0.001) between a country's Stringency Index and healthcare expenditure per capita.
Recommendations on how haematological function should be monitored in patients treated with clozapine vary considerably between countries. It would be useful to standardise guidelines on haematological monitoring worldwide.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenged not only the health-care industry, but also the public health infrastructure in new and wide-ranging ways. Environmental health (EH) professionals have proven to be an essential component of the interdisciplinary public health solution required to prevent, respond, and recover from the COVID-19 pandemic. The Indian Health Service’s Division of Environmental Health Services is a community-based program offering a broad scope of environmental health services and technical assistance. Significant COVID-19 workload activities were recorded from March 2020 through March 2021. A total of 62.7% of the Division’s federal staff completed a 24-question survey in February/March 2021. Primary roles relating to community-based EH, institutional EH, and incident command system support/teams became apparent. Results indicated Division of Environmental Health Services staff provided critical leadership and used their established, trusted, interdisciplinary partnerships to help ensure critical resources and services were available in Indian Country.
Intracerebral abscess is a life-threatening condition for which there are no current, widely accepted neurosurgical management guidelines. The purpose of this study was to investigate Canadian practice patterns for the medical and surgical management of primary, recurrent, and multiple intracerebral abscesses.
A self-administered, cross-sectional, electronic survey was distributed to active staff and resident members of the Canadian Neurosurgical Society and Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative. Responses between subgroups were analyzed using the Chi-square test.
In total, 101 respondents (57.7%) completed the survey. The majority (60.0%) were staff neurosurgeons working in an academic, adult care setting (80%). We identified a consensus that abscesses >2.5 cm in diameter should be considered for surgical intervention. The majority of respondents were in favor of excising an intracerebral abscess over performing aspiration if located superficially in non-eloquent cortex (60.4%), located in the posterior fossa (65.4%), or causing mass effect leading to herniation (75.3%). The majority of respondents were in favor of reoperation for recurrent abscesses if measuring greater than 2.5 cm, associated with progressive neurological deterioration, the index operation was an aspiration and did not include resection of the abscess capsule, and if the recurrence occurred despite prior surgery combined with maximal antibiotic therapy. There was no consensus on the use of topical intraoperative antibiotics.
This survey demonstrated heterogeneity in the medical and surgical management of primary, recurrent, and multiple brain abscesses among Canadian neurosurgery attending staff and residents.1
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) instigated a flurry of clinical research activity. The unprecedented pace with which trials were launched left an early void in data standardization, limiting the potential for subsequent data pooling. To facilitate data standardization across emerging studies, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) charged two groups with harmonizing data collection, and these groups collaborated to create a concise set of COVID-19 Common Data Elements (CDEs) for clinical research.
Our iterative approach followed three guiding principles: 1) draw from existing multi-center COVID-19 clinical trials as precedents, 2) incorporate existing data elements and data standards whenever possible, and 3) alignment to data standards that facilitate data sharing and regulatory submission. We also supported rapid implementation of the CDEs in NHLBI-funded studies and iteratively refined the CDEs based on feedback from those study teams
The NHLBI COVID-19 CDEs are publicly available and being used for current COVID-19 clinical trials. CDEs are organized into domains, and each data element is classified within a three-tiered prioritization system. The CDE manual is hosted publicly at https://nhlbi-connects.org/common_data_elements with an accompanying data dictionary and implementation guidance.
The NHLBI COVID-19 CDEs are designed to aid data harmonization across studies to achieve the benefits of pooled analyses. We found that organizing CDE development around our three guiding principles focused our efforts and allowed us to adapt as COVID-19 knowledge advanced. As these CDEs continue to evolve, they could be generalized for use in other acute respiratory illnesses.
Non-penetrating head and neck trauma is associated with extracranial traumatic vertebral artery injury (eTVAI) in approximately 1–2% of cases. Most patients are initially asymptomatic but have an increased risk for delayed stroke and mortality. Limited evidence is available to guide the management of asymptomatic eTVAI. As such, we sought to investigate national practice patterns regarding screening, treatment, and follow-up domains.
A cross-sectional, electronic survey was distributed to members of the Canadian Neurosurgical Society and Canadian Spine Society. We presented two cases of asymptomatic eTVAI, stratified by injury mechanism, fracture type, and angiographic findings. Screening questions were answered prior to presentation of angiographic findings. Survey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
One hundred-eight of 232 (46%) participants, representing 20 academic institutions, completed the survey. Case 1: 78% of respondents would screen for eTVAI with computed topography angiography (CTA) (97%), immediately (88%). The majority of respondents (97%) would treat with aspirin (89%) for 3–6 months (46%). Respondents would follow up clinically (89%) or radiographically (75%), every 1–3 months. Case 2: 73% of respondents would screen with CTA (96%), immediately (88%). Most respondents (94%) would treat with aspirin (50%) for 3–6 months (35%). Thirty-six percent of respondents would utilize endovascular therapy. Respondents would follow up clinically (97%) or radiographically (89%), every 1–3 months.
This survey of Canadian practice patterns highlights consistency in the approach to screening, treatment, and follow-up of asymptomatic eTVAI. These findings are relevant to neurosurgeons, spinal surgeons, stroke neurologists, and neuro-interventionalists.
Child protection systems monitoring is key to ensuring children’s wellbeing. In England, monitoring is rooted in onsite inspection, culminating in judgements ranging from ‘outstanding’ to ‘inadequate’. But inspection may carry unintended consequences where child protection systems are weak. One potential consequence is increased child welfare intervention rates. In this longitudinal ecological study of local authorities in England, we used Poisson mixed-effects regression models to assess whether child welfare intervention rates are higher in an inspection year, whether this is driven by inspection judgement, and whether more deprived areas experience different rates for a given inspection judgement. We investigated the impact of inspection on care entry, Child Protection Plan-initiation, and child-in-need status. We found that inspection was associated with a rise in rates across the spectrum of interventions. Worse judgements yielded higher rates. Inspection may also exacerbate existing inequalities. Unlike less deprived areas, more deprived areas judged inadequate did not experience an increase in the less intrusive ‘child-in-need’ interventions. Our findings suggest that a narrow focus on social work practice is unlikely to address weaknesses in the child protection system. Child protection systems monitoring should be guided by a holistic model of systems improvement, encompassing the socioeconomic determinants of quality.