The free glucose concentration in the aqueous phase of samples of goat, sheep, cow, rat and rabbit milk was about 0·1–0·3 mn, while that in human milk was about 2 mM. During starvation the glucose concentration of goat milk fell considerably (by about 80 % in 2 d) in parallel with the decreased rate of lactose production. With rats fed ad lib., glucose concentration in the milk was greater at 12.00 h than at 18.00 h, when lactose synthesis has been shown to decrease. 3-O-Methyl-D-glucose injected into the goat mammary gland via the teat canal specifically entered the blood. These findings support the idea that glucose equilibrates across the apical membrane of mammary secretory cells, so that milk glucose concentrations reflect intracellular glucose concentrations.