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Despite the increasing rates of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) carriage among hospitalized patients in endemic settings, the role of active surveillance cultures and cohorting is still debated. We sought to determine the long-term effect of a multifaceted infection-control intervention on the incidence of CRAB in an endemic setting.
A prospective, quasi-experimental study was performed at a 670-bed, acute-care hospital. The study consisted of 4 phases. In phase I, basic infection control measures were used. In phase II, CRAB carriers were cohorted in a single ward with dedicated nursing and enhanced environmental cleaning. In phase III large-scale screening in high-risk units was implemented. Phase IV comprised a 15-month follow-up period.
During the baseline period, the mean incidence rate (IDR) of CRAB was 44 per 100,000 patient days (95% CI, 37.7–54.1). No significant decrease was observed during phase II (IDR, 40.8 per 100,000 patient days; 95% CI, 30.0–56.7; P = .97). During phase III, despite high compliance with control measures, ongoing transmission in several wards was observed and the mean IDR was 53.9 per 100,000 patient days (95% CI, 40.5–72.2; P = .55). In phase IV, following the implementation of large-scale screening, a significant decrease in the mean IDR was observed (25.8 per 100,000 patient days; 95% CI, 19.9–33.5; P = .03). An overall reduction of CRAB rate was observed between phase I and phase IV (rate ratio, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4–0.9; P < .001).
The comprehensive intervention that included intensiﬁed control measures with routine active screening cultures was effective in reducing the incidence of CRAB in an endemic hospital setting.
919,000 Rohingya refugees live in overcrowded camps in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh after fleeing violence in Myanmar. The Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Goyalmara Hospital offers the highest level of pediatric and neonatal care serving the Rohingya refugees and palliative care is gradually being integrated due to high mortality and medical complexity of patients. The purpose of this study was to understand the moral experiences of staff involved in providing palliative care to inform program implementation at Goyalmara Hospital and in other humanitarian contexts.
This focused ethnography was conducted between March-August 2021 at Goyalmara Hospital. Data collection involved participant-observation, individual interviews (22), focus group discussions (5), and analysis of protocols and other documents. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded, translated, and transcribed. A coding scheme was developed, and data coded using NVivo 11.
A key finding of this study was the important yet contested role of clinical guidelines and policies in palliative care related decision-making which was shaped by the authority and impermanent presence of international staff in the project. Staff saw clinical guidelines as a valuable resource that supported a consistent approach to care over time, and some locally hired staff used clinical guidelines as a tool to support their point of view during care planning discussions with international staff. Others felt that palliative care guidelines and other policies were inappropriately or rigidly applied, particularly surrounding decisions to refer (or not refer) patients to a higher level of care, or to discontinue certain medical treatments at end of life.
MSF staff experienced tension between the need for clarity and consistency, and the need to tailor guidelines to the context, patient, and family. Open discussion of staff concerns may alleviate moral distress and alert teams to areas where advocacy, staff psycho-social support, training, or clinical mentoring are needed.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Our overall objective is to investigate the relationship between radiologic features of meningioma with recently identified histopathological and molecular biomarkers, and to apply a machine learning (ML) approach to further demonstrate their utility in predicting clinical outcomes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We have enrolled a cohort of 84 patients with meningioma diagnosed on the basis of conventional gadolinium-enhanced MRI imaging features since September 2019. Each patient has demographic and clinical data, Ga-68-DOTATATE MRI/PET SUV and dynamic metrics, DCE-MRI perfusion parameters, and histopathologic data. Various tumor subregions will be segmented semi-automatically and later confirmed by experienced neuroradiologist. Histopathologic data will include histologic grade, mitotic rate, Ki67 proliferative index, and presence of WHO established atypical histologic features, immunohistochemical parameters, and established high-grade molecular features. We will use supervised learning techniques to develop algorithms for predicting molecular features from imaging phenotypes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Anticipated results - advancements in understanding the molecular biomarkers of meningiomas has uncovered genetic alterations and epigenetic changes that more accurately determine tumor behavior. Currently, the imaging correlates of these molecular biomarkers are unknown, and utilizing radiographic data to predict prognosis and imaging-based classifications of meningiomas have not yet been investigated. Validated imaging correlates of molecular biomarkers not only provide an in-vivo assessment of tumor biology, but can also be integrated with histopathologic features ( radiopathomics models’) for more accurate disease prognostication. We anticipate that our results will identify surrogate imaging features for some of the recently emerged molecular biomarkers of meningioma. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a paucity of data on the importance of imaging phenotypes in determining tumor biology. This work has the potential of significant clinical impact by enabling a priori molecular characterization of meningiomas at the time of new diagnosis or recurrence, thereby allowing a personalized medicine approach to treatment planning.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Particulate matter (PM) and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increase risk of World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI). Mediterranean-type diets have also been found to improve lung function. Fire Department of New York 1st-responders with a high PM exposure at WTC and MetSyn may have improved lung function after a Mediterranean dietary intervention. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Food Intake REstriction for Health OUtcome Support and Education (FIREHOUSE) randomized clinical trial (RCT) assessed our hypothesis that a low-calorie Mediterranean (LoCalMed) intervention targeting clinically relevant disease modifiers will improve metabolic risk, subclinical indicators of cardiopulmonary disease, quality of life, and lung function in firefighters with WTC-LI. Primary-outcome targeted a LoCalMed loss of BMI(≥1kg/m2). Secondary-outcomes included lung function, quality of life, and cardiovascular health. Male firefighters with WTC-LI and a BMI>27kg/m2 were randomized to: 1. LoCalMed (n=46); or 2. Usual Care (UC; n=43). Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT03581006. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: LoCalMed’s estimated efficacy on BMI reduction crossed the pre-specified significance boundary on interim analysis compared to UC. In addition, improvements were observed in secondary-outcomes of lung health (FEV1 and FVC), inflammation (WBC), vascular disease (DBP), quality of life (SF-36, health perception) and dietary habits (less cholesterol, carbohydrates, fats, and sweets and increased protein) in the LoCalMed arm. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: LoCalMed significantly decreased BMI and alleviated adverse health outcomes in our WTC-exposed first responders. A fully powered RCT is required to determine if this approach is efficacious for the treatment of WTC-associated pulmonary disease, as well as LoCalMed’s generalizability to PM associated disease.
The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has placed unprecedented strain on underfunded public health resources in the Southeastern United States. The Memphis, TN, metropolitan region has lacked infrastructure for health data exchange.
This manuscript describes a multidisciplinary initiative to create a community-focused COVID-19 data registry, the Memphis Pandemic Health Informatics System (MEMPHI-SYS). MEMPHI-SYS leverages test result data updated directly from community-based testing sites, as well as a full complement of public health data sets and knowledge-based informatics. It has been guided by relationships with community stakeholders and is managed alongside the largest publicly funded community-based COVID-19 testing response in the Mid-South. MEMPHI-SYS has supported interactive Web-based analytic resources and informs federally funded COVID-19 outreach directed toward neighborhoods most in need of pandemic support.
MEMPHI-SYS provides an instructive case study of how to collaboratively establish the technical scaffolding and human relationships necessary for data-driven, health equity-focused pandemic surveillance, and policy interventions.
Fructose (C6H12O6) is acutely obesogenic and is a risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the possible long-lasting effects of early-life fructose consumption have not been studied. We tested for effects of early-life fructose and/or wheel access (voluntary exercise) in a line of selectively bred High Runner (HR) mice and a non-selected Control (C) line. Exposures began at weaning and continued for 3 weeks to sexual maturity, followed by a 23-week "washout" period (equivalent to ∼17 human years). Fructose increased total caloric intake, body mass, and body fat during juvenile exposure, but had no effect on juvenile wheel running and no important lasting effects on adult physical activity or body weight/composition. Interestingly, adult maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was reduced in mice that had early-life fructose and wheel access. Consistent with previous studies, early-life exercise promoted adult wheel running. In a 3-way interaction, C mice that had early-life fructose and no wheel access gained body mass in response to 2 weeks of adult wheel access, while all other groups lost mass. Overall, we found some long-lasting positive effects of early-life exercise, but minimal effects of early-life fructose, regardless of the mouse line.
End-of-life care (EOLC) communication is beneficial but underutilized, particularly in conditions with a variable course such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Physicians’ emotional distress intolerance has been identified as a barrier to EOLC communication. However, studies of emotional distress intolerance in EOLC have largely relied on anecdotal reports, qualitative data, or observational studies of physician–patient communication. A free-standing measure of multiple dimensions of distress tolerance is warranted to enable the identification of individuals experiencing distress intolerance and to facilitate the effective targeting of interventions to improve distress tolerance.
This study provides preliminary data on the reliability and validity of the Physician Distress Intolerance (PDI) scale. We examine potential subdimensions of emotional distress intolerance.
Family medicine and internal medicine physicians completed the PDI, read vignettes describing patients with COPD or CHF, and indicated whether they initiated or delayed EOLC communication with their patients with similar conditions.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on separate samples. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that a three-factor solution was superior to a two- or one-factor solution. Three subscales were created: Anticipating Negative Emotions, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Iatrogenic Harm. The full scale and subscales had adequate internal consistency and demonstrated evidence of validity. Higher scores on the PDI, indicating greater distress intolerance, were negatively associated with initiation and positively associated with delay of EOLC communication. Subscales provided unique information.
Significance of results
The PDI can contribute to research investigating and addressing emotional barriers to EOLC communication.
Among 46 infants colonized with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium during an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit, the estimated time until half had achieved clearance was 217 days. All 40 infants who completed follow-up cleared carriage by 1 year. No predictors of prolonged carriage (> 6 months) were identified.
In June 2018, the Ministry of Health received notification from 2 hospitals about 2 patients who presented with overwhelming Enterobacter kobei sepsis that developed within 24 hours after a dental procedure. We describe the investigation of this outbreak.
The epidemiologic investigation included site visits in 2 dental clinics and interviews with all involved healthcare workers. Chart reviews were conducted for case and control subjects. Samples were taken from medications and antiseptics, environmental surfaces, dental water systems, and from the involved healthcare professionals. Isolate similarity was assessed using repetitive element sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR).
The 2 procedures were conducted in different dental clinics by different surgeons and dental technicians. A single anesthesiologist administered the systemic anesthetic in both cases. Cultures from medications, fluids and healthcare workers’ hands were negative, but E. kobei was detected from the anesthesiologist’s portable medication cart. The 2 human isolates and the environmental isolate shared the same REP-PCR fingerprinting profile. None of the 21 patients treated by the anesthesiologist in a general hospital during the same period, using the hospital’s medications, developed infection following surgery.
An outbreak of post–dental-procedure sepsis was linked to a contaminated medication cart, emphasizing the importance of medication storage standards and strict aseptic technique when preparing intravenous drugs during anesthesia. Immediate reporting of sepsis following these outpatient procedures enabled early identification and termination of the outbreak.
We characterized 57 isolates from a 2-phase clonal outbreak of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase–producing Eschericha coli, involving 9 Israeli hospitals; all but 1 isolate belonged to sequence-type (ST) 410. Most isolates in the second phase harbored blaKPC-2 in addition to blaNDM-5. Genetic sequencing revealed most dual-carbapenemase–producing isolates to be monophyletically derived from a common ancestor.
Background: Two affiliated teaching hospitals in Chicago, Illinois, participated in an ethnographic study of hospital-based inpatient antimicrobial stewardship programs and interventions between 2017 and 2018. Although antimicrobial stewardship is now a requirement in medical practice, it is not clear how infectious disease physicians perceive and understand antimicrobial stewardship. Over a period of 18 months, we directly observed infectious disease practice to better understand how antimicrobial stewardship is conducted among physicians within the same specialty. Methods: A doctoral candidate medical anthropologist conducted semistructured interviews with infectious disease attending physicians and fellow physicians (N = 18) at 2 affiliated teaching hospitals in Chicago, IL, between July 2017 and March 2018 as part of an ethnographic study involving direct observation of inpatient care. Interview questions focused on 3 key domains: (1) descriptions of antimicrobial use among hospital-based physicians, (2) solicited definitions of antimicrobial stewardship, and (3) experiences practicing as an infectious disease consultant. Physicians who were directly involved with the antimicrobial stewardship program were excluded from this analysis. Transcriptions of the data were analyzed using thematic coding aided by MAXQDA qualitative analysis software. Results: Infectious disease physicians have a robust understanding of antimicrobial stewardship (Table 1). Infectious disease physicians described other hospital-based physicians as regularly overusing and misusing antimicrobials, compared with their practice, which they described as “thoughtful.” Definitions in response to the question “What is antimicrobial stewardship?” centered on guiding the prescribing behavior of others. Infectious disease physicians valued stewardship and were concerned with lack of adherence to antimicrobial prescribing recommendations among other hospital-based physicians, behaviors which infectious disease physicians viewed as perpetuating antibiotic resistance. Finally, infectious disease physicians found serving as antimicrobial stewards during their everyday practice to be challenging based on their role as consultants to the primary service. Conclusions: Our qualitative analysis revealed that infectious disease physicians not regularly involved in antimicrobial stewardship are highly motivated stewards who perceive their hospital-based colleagues to be less effective at appropriately prescribing antimicrobials. As consultants, infectious disease physicians are not autonomous decision makers. However, as antimicrobial stewardship programs search for champions, infectious disease physicians could be better utilized as knowledgeable and motivated individuals who can make the case for stewardship.
The diagnosis of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome traditionally involves orthostatic vitals evaluation. The Compensatory Reserve Index is a non-invasive, FDA-cleared algorithm that analyses photoplethysmogram waveforms in real time to trend subtle waveform features associated with varying degrees of central volume loss, from normovolemia to decompensation. We hypothesised that patients who met physiologic criteria for Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome would have greater changes in Compensatory Reserve Index with orthostatic vitals.
Orthostatic vitals and Compensatory Reserve Index values were assessed in individuals previously diagnosed with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome and healthy controls aged 12–21 years. Adolescents were grouped for comparison based on whether they met heart rate criteria for Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome (physiologic Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome).
Sixty-one patients were included. Eighteen percent of patients with an existing Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome diagnosis met heart rate criteria, and these patients had significantly greater supine to standing change in Compensatory Reserve Index (0.67 vs. 0.51; p<0.001). The optimal change in Compensatory Reserve Index for physiologic Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome was 0.60. Patients with physiologic Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome were more likely to report previous diagnoses of anxiety or depression (p = 0.054, 0.042).
An accurate diagnosis of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome may be confounded by related comorbidities. Only 18% (8/44) of previously diagnosed Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome patients met heart rate criteria. Findings support the utility of objective physiologic measures, such as the Compensatory Reserve Index, to more accurately identify patients with true autonomic dysfunction.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a risk for World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI; defined as developing FEV1<lower limit of normal [LLN]). Metabolic health is a modifiable disease risk factor. We propose to characterize how time-dependent covariates of MetSyn are longitudinally associated with WTC-LI. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: WTC-particulate exposed firefighters, consented, with pre-9/11 FEV1 LLN (N = 5,746). Data assessed from last pre-9/11 till August 1, 2017. Longitudinal MetSyn characteristics were assessed using 3 models: i. A linear mixed effect model to assess the effect size of longitudinal MetSyn and its components on longitudinal FEV1% predicted as an outcome; ii. a time-dependent Cox regression to assess the associations of MetSyn to time of onset of WTC-LI; iii. a novel, partially linear single index regression model with repeatedly measured MetSyn to assess their joint effects and delineate their relative contribution on the longitudinal lung function in the WTC-FDNY cohort. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In Model I, BMI 30 kg/m2 had the largest effect size compared to ever-smoking, with −2.524 (95%CI: −2.708,−2.340) compared to −1.681(−2.325,−1.038) respectively. Having MetSyn, defined as 3/5 risk factors, had an effect size of −2.319(−2.526,−2.112). In Model II, hazards of triglycerides 150mg/dL were highest at 1.497(1.336, 1.677), followed by BMI 30 kg/m2 at 1.406(1.256, 1.575), and HDL<40mg/dL 1.355(1.176-1.561), compared to ever-smoking (1.201, p = 0.002). Having high exposure to PM by being present in the morning of 9/11 was a significant covariate only in Model II investigating HDL<40mg/dL or triglycerides 150mg/dL. Model III The proposed methods will be applied to our cohort study. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: MetSyn is both a predictor and concurrent marker of WTC-LI. The single index model can not only reduce dimensionality of the covariates, but also provides efficient estimates of the joint MetSyn effects, allowing linear or nonlinear effects. Future studies will investigate dietary intervention as a potential disease-modifying factor. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: NA, nothing to disclose.
We compared the yield of culturing various body sites to detect carriage of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB). Culturing the skin using a premoistened sponge, with overnight enrichment and plating on CHROMagar MDR Acinetobacter, had the highest yield: 92%. Skin is satisfactory as a single site for active surveillance of CRAB.
Recent political contests across Europe and North America have been propelled by a wave of populist, anti-immigrant resentment, and it was widely expected that these populist victories would further fan the flames of xenophobia. This article reports the results of an experiment around the Brexit referendum, designed to test how populist victories shape anti-immigrant attitudes. The study finds that anti-immigrant attitudes actually softened after the Brexit referendum, among both Leave and Remain supporters, and these effects persisted for several months. How could a right-wing, populist victory soften anti-immigrant attitudes? The authors use causal mediation analysis to understand this ‘populist paradox’. Among Leavers, a greater sense of control over immigration channelled the effects of the Brexit outcome onto anti-immigrant attitudes. Individuals' efforts to distance themselves from accusations of xenophobia and racism explains the softening of attitudes towards immigration observed among both Leavers and Remainers.
Page's target article makes a good case for the strength of localist models. This can be characterized as an issue of where new information is integrated with respect to existing knowledge structures. We extend the analysis by discussing the dimension of when this integration takes place, the implications, and how they guide us in the creation of cognitive models.
Patients with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-positive clinical cultures during a prior hospitalization were screened using high sensitivity methods upon first readmission. Of 38 patients, 31.6% screened positive; 42% screened positive within 2 months from discharge, and 14% screened positive more than 5 months from discharge. Carriage was persistent up to 285 days.
To assess the safety of, and subsequent allergy documentation associated with, an antimicrobial stewardship intervention consisting of test-dose challenge procedures prompted by an electronic guideline for hospitalized patients with reported β-lactam allergies.
Retrospective cohort study.
Large healthcare system consisting of 2 academic and 3 community acute-care hospitals between April 2016 and December 2017.
We evaluated β-lactam antibiotic test-dose outcomes, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs), hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), and electronic health record (EHR) allergy record updates. HSR predictors were examined using a multivariable logistic regression model. Modification of the EHR allergy record after test doses considered relevant allergy entries added, deleted, and/or specified.
We identified 1,046 test-doses: 809 (77%) to cephalosporins, 148 (14%) to penicillins, and 89 (9%) to carbapenems. Overall, 78 patients (7.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9%–9.2%) had signs or symptoms of an ADR, and 40 (3.8%; 95% CI, 2.8%–5.2%) had confirmed HSRs. Most HSRs occurred at the second (ie, full-dose) step (68%) and required no treatment beyond drug discontinuation (58%); 3 HSR patients were treated with intramuscular epinephrine. Reported cephalosporin allergy history was associated with an increased odds of HSR (odds ratio [OR], 2.96; 95% CI, 1.34–6.58). Allergies were updated for 474 patients (45%), with records specified (82%), deleted (16%), and added (8%).
This antimicrobial stewardship intervention using β-lactam test-dose procedures was safe. Overall, 3.8% of patients with β-lactam allergy histories had an HSR; cephalosporin allergy histories conferred a 3-fold increased risk. Encouraging EHR documentation might improve this safe, effective, and practical acute-care antibiotic stewardship tool.
We measured droplet aerosol dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) by sampling air surrounding 10 ventilated patients with CRAB isolated in sputum. Over 70 hours, we sampled 252,000 L of air; CRAB was detected in 39,600 L (16%). CRAB growth was higher during patient care, notably suctioning and sheet changing.