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Written by a team of leading international scholars, The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and War illuminates the ways Shakespeare's works provide a rich and imaginative resource for thinking about the topic of war. Contributors explore the multiplicity of conflicting perspectives his dramas offer: war depicted from chivalric, masculine, nationalistic, and imperial perspectives; war depicted as a source of great excitement and as a theater of honor; war depicted from realistic or skeptical perspectives that expose the butchery, suffering, illness, famine, degradation, and havoc it causes. The essays in this volume examine the representations and rhetoric of war throughout Shakespeare's plays, as well as the modern history of the war plays on stage, in film, and in propaganda. This book offers fresh perspectives on Shakespeare's multifaceted representations of the complexities of early modern warfare, while at the same time illuminating why his perspectives on war and its consequences continue to matter now and in the future.
Self-harm and eating disorders are often comorbid in clinical samples but their co-occurrence in the general population is unclear. Given that only a small proportion of individuals who self-harm or have disordered eating present to clinical services, and that both self-harm and eating disorders are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, we aimed to study these behaviours at a population level.
We assessed the co-occurrence of self-harm and disordered eating behaviours in 3384 females and 2326 males from a UK population-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants reported on their self-harm and disordered eating behaviours (fasting, purging, binge-eating and excessive exercise) in the last year via questionnaire at 16 and 24 years. At each age we assessed how many individuals who self-harm also reported disordered eating, and how many individuals with disordered eating also reported self-harm.
We found high comorbidity of self-harm and disordered eating. Almost two-thirds of 16-year-old females, and two-in-five 24-year-old males who self-harmed also reported some form of disordered eating. Young people with disordered eating reported higher levels of self-harm at both ages compared to those without disordered eating.
As self-harm and disordered eating commonly co-occur in young people in the general population, it is important to screen for both sets of difficulties to provide appropriate treatment.
Episodic memory impairment and hippocampal pathology are hallmark features of both temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Pattern separation (PS), which enables the distinction between similar but unique experiences, is thought to contribute to successful encoding and retrieval of episodic memories. Impaired PS has been proposed as a potential mechanism underling episodic memory impairment in aMCI, but this association is less established in TLE. In this study, we examined behavioral PS in patients with TLE and explored whether profiles of performance in TLE are similar to aMCI.
Patients with TLE, aMCI, and age-matched, healthy controls (HCs) completed a modified recognition task that relies on PS for the discrimination of highly similar lure items, the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST). Group differences were evaluated and relationships between clinical characteristics, California Verbal Learning Test—Second Edition scores, and MST performance were tested in the TLE group.
Patients with TLE and aMCI demonstrated poorer PS performance relative to the HCs, but performance did not differ between the two patient groups. Neither the side of seizure focus nor having hippocampal sclerosis affected performance in TLE. However, TLE patients with clinically defined memory impairment showed the poorest performance.
Memory performance on a task that relies on PS was disrupted to a similar extent in TLE and aMCI. The MST could provide a clinically useful tool for measuring hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in TLE and other neurological disorders associated with hippocampal damage.
Medically unexplained symptoms otherwise referred to as persistent physical symptoms (PPS) are debilitating to patients. As many specific PPS syndromes share common behavioural, cognitive, and affective influences, transdiagnostic treatments might be effective for this patient group. We evaluated the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a therapist-delivered, transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural intervention (TDT-CBT) plus (+) standard medical care (SMC) v. SMC alone for the treatment of patients with PPS in secondary medical care.
A two-arm randomised controlled trial, with measurements taken at baseline and at 9, 20, 40- and 52-weeks post randomisation. The primary outcome measure was the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) at 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes included mood (PHQ-9 and GAD-7), symptom severity (PHQ-15), global measure of change (CGI), and the Persistent Physical Symptoms Questionnaire (PPSQ).
We randomised 324 patients and 74% were followed up at 52 weeks. The difference between groups was not statistically significant for the primary outcome (WSAS at 52 weeks: estimated difference −1.48 points, 95% confidence interval from −3.44 to 0.48, p = 0.139). However, the results indicated that some secondary outcomes had a treatment effect in favour of TDT-CBT + SMC with three outcomes showing a statistically significant difference between groups. These were WSAS at 20 weeks (p = 0.016) at the end of treatment and the PHQ-15 (p = 0.013) and CGI at 52 weeks (p = 0.011).
We have preliminary evidence that TDT-CBT + SMC may be helpful for people with a range of PPS. However, further study is required to maximise or maintain effects seen at end of treatment.
Memory symptoms and objective impairment are common in HIV disease and are associated with disability. A paradoxical issue is that objective episodic memory failures can interfere with accurate recall of memory symptoms. The present study assessed whether responses on a self-report scale of memory symptoms demonstrate measurement invariance in persons with and without objective HIV-associated memory impairment.
In total, 505 persons with HIV completed the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). Objective memory impairment (n = 141) was determined using a 1-SD cutoff on clinical tests of episodic memory. PRMQ measurement invariance was assessed by confirmatory factor analyses examining a one-factor model with increasing cross-group equality constraints imposed on factor loadings and item thresholds (i.e., configural, weak, and strong invariance).
Configural model fit indicated that identical items measured a one-factor model for both groups. Comparison to the weak model indicated that factor loadings were equivalent across groups. However, there was evidence of partial strong invariance, with two PRMQ item thresholds differing across memory impairment groups. Post hoc analyses using a 1.5-SD memory impairment cutoff (n = 77) revealed both partial weak and partial strong invariance, such that PRMQ item loadings differed across memory groups for three items.
The PRMQ demonstrated a robust factor structure among persons with and without objective HIV-associated memory impairment. However, on select PRMQ items, individuals with memory impairment reported observed scores that were relatively higher than their latent score, while items were more strongly associated with the memory factor in a group with greater memory impairment.
To determine whether a hospital-wide universal gloving program resulted in increased hand hygiene compliance and reduced inpatient Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) rates.
We carried out a multiple-year before-and-after quasi-experimental quality improvement study. Gloving and hand hygiene compliance data as well as hospital-acquired infection rates were prospectively collected from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2017, by secret monitors.
The University of Rochester Strong Memorial Hospital, an 849-bed quaternary-care teaching hospital.
All adult inpatients with the exception of patients in the obstetrics unit.
A hospital-wide universal gloving protocol was initiated on January 1, 2016.
Hand hygiene compliance increased from 68% in 2015 reaching an average of 88% by 2017 (P < .0002). A 10% increase in gloving per unit was associated with a 1.13-fold increase in the odds of hand hygiene (95% credible interval, 1.12–1.14). The rates of CDI decreased from 1.05 infections per 1,000 patient days in 2015 to 0.74 in 2017 (P < .04).
A universal gloving initiative was associated with a statistically significant increase in both gloving and hand hygiene compliance. CDI rates decreased during this intervention.
Dying is mostly seen as a dreadful event, never a happy experience. Yet, as palliative care physicians, we have seen so many patients who remained happy despite facing death. Hence, we conducted this qualitative study to explore happiness in palliative care patients at the University of Malaya Medical Centre.
Twenty terminally ill patients were interviewed with semi-structured questions. The results were thematically analyzed.
Eight themes were generated: the meaning of happiness, connections, mindset, pleasure, health, faith, wealth, and work. Our results showed that happiness is possible at the end of life. Happiness can coexist with pain and suffering. Social connections were the most important element of happiness at the end of life. Wealth and work were given the least emphasis. From the descriptions of our patients, we recognized a tendency for the degree of importance to shift from the hedonic happiness to eudaimonic happiness as patients experienced a terminal illness.
Significance of results
To increase the happiness of palliative care patients, it is crucial to assess the meaning of happiness for each patient and the degree of importance for each happiness domain to allow targeted interventions.
“Leaders stand on the shoulders of those who came before them” (paraphrased from Bernard of Chartres and Isaac Newton among others) and they depend on those around them to hold them up. The evolution of ecosystem science is traced in this chapter from its conceptual beginnings in the late 1500s (and earlier) until now. The importance of “giants” in soil science, botany, chemistry, zoology, and microbiology in establishing the scientific basis for what later would become “ecology” and later yet “ecosystem science” is emphasized. As the science evolved toward the study of the structure and functioning of ecosystems, relying heavily on the systems ecology paradigm and especially as humans became recognized as integral parts thereof, research philosophy and methodology needed to change. Science needed to evolve from individual scientists (giants) with reductionist perspectives to transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams of scientists with leaders (often multiple leaders) having holistic, systems thinking perspectives buttressed by cadres of collaborators and technical and administrative supporters, often from many locations nationally and internationally. Now teams are beginning to include social sciences, economists, education and engagement specialists, managers, decision-makers, and other stakeholders.
Disasters have many deleterious effects and are becoming more frequent. From a health-care perspective, disasters may cause periods of stress for hospitals and health-care systems. Telemedicine is a rapidly growing technology that has been used to improve access to health-care during disasters. Telemedicine applied in disasters is referred to as disaster telemedicine. Our objective was to conduct a scoping literature review on current use of disaster telemedicine to develop recommendations addressing the most common barriers to implementation of a telemedicine system for regional disaster health response in the United States. Publications on telemedicine in disasters were collected from online databases. This included both publications in English and those translated into English. Predesigned inclusion/exclusion criteria and a PRISMA flow diagram were applied. The PRISMA flow diagram was used on the basis that it would help streamline the available literature. Literature that met the criteria was scored by 2 reviewers who rated relevance to commonly identified disaster telemedicine implementation barriers, as well as how disaster telemedicine systems were implemented. We also identified other frequently mentioned themes and briefly summarized recommendations for those topics. Literature scoring resulted in the following topics: telemedicine usage (42 publications), system design and operating models (43 publications), as well as difficulties with credentialing (5 publications), licensure (6 publications), liability (4 publications), reimbursement (5 publications), and technology (24 publications). Recommendations from each category were qualitatively summarized.
Mental health policy makers require evidence-based information to optimise effective care provision based on local need, but tools are unavailable.
To develop and validate a population-level prediction model for need for early intervention in psychosis (EIP) care for first-episode psychosis (FEP) in England up to 2025, based on epidemiological evidence and demographic projections.
We used Bayesian Poisson regression to model small-area-level variation in FEP incidence for people aged 16–64 years. We compared six candidate models, validated against observed National Health Service FEP data in 2017. Our best-fitting model predicted annual incidence case-loads for EIP services in England up to 2025, for probable FEP, treatment in EIP services, initial assessment by EIP services and referral to EIP services for ‘suspected psychosis’. Forecasts were stratified by gender, age and ethnicity, at national and Clinical Commissioning Group levels.
A model with age, gender, ethnicity, small-area-level deprivation, social fragmentation and regional cannabis use provided best fit to observed new FEP cases at national and Clinical Commissioning Group levels in 2017 (predicted 8112, 95% CI 7623–8597; observed 8038, difference of 74 [0.92%]). By 2025, the model forecasted 11 067 new treated cases per annum (95% CI 10 383–11 740). For every 10 new treated cases, 21 and 23 people would be assessed by and referred to EIP services for suspected psychosis, respectively.
Our evidence-based methodology provides an accurate, validated tool to inform clinical provision of EIP services about future population need for care, based on local variation of major social determinants of psychosis.
The occurrence of early childhood adversity is strongly linked to later self-harm, but there is poor understanding of how this distal risk factor might influence later behaviours. One possible mechanism is through an earlier onset of puberty in children exposed to adversity, since early puberty is associated with an increased risk of adolescent self-harm. We investigated whether early pubertal timing mediates the association between childhood adversity and later self-harm.
Participants were 6698 young people from a UK population-based birth cohort (ALSPAC). We measured exposure to nine types of adversity from 0 to 9 years old, and self-harm when participants were aged 16 and 21 years. Pubertal timing measures were age at peak height velocity (aPHV – males and females) and age at menarche (AAM). We used generalised structural equation modelling for analyses.
For every additional type of adversity; participants had an average 12–14% increased risk of self-harm by 16. Relative risk (RR) estimates were stronger for direct effects when outcomes were self-harm with suicidal intent. There was no evidence that earlier pubertal timing mediated the association between adversity and self-harm [indirect effect RR 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–1.00 for aPHV and RR 1.00, 95% CI 1.00–1.01 for AAM].
A cumulative measure of exposure to multiple types of adversity does not confer an increased risk of self-harm via early pubertal timing, however both childhood adversity and early puberty are risk factors for later self-harm. Research identifying mechanisms underlying the link between childhood adversity and later self-harm is needed to inform interventions.
Perceived discrimination is associated with worse mental health. Few studies have assessed whether perceived discrimination (i) is associated with the risk of psychotic disorders and (ii) contributes to an increased risk among minority ethnic groups relative to the ethnic majority.
We used data from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions Work Package 2, a population-based case−control study of incident psychotic disorders in 17 catchment sites across six countries. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between perceived discrimination and psychosis using mixed-effects logistic regression models. We used stratified and mediation analyses to explore differences for minority ethnic groups.
Reporting any perceived experience of major discrimination (e.g. unfair treatment by police, not getting hired) was higher in cases than controls (41.8% v. 34.2%). Pervasive experiences of discrimination (≥3 types) were also higher in cases than controls (11.3% v. 5.5%). In fully adjusted models, the odds of psychosis were 1.20 (95% CI 0.91–1.59) for any discrimination and 1.79 (95% CI 1.19–1.59) for pervasive discrimination compared with no discrimination. In stratified analyses, the magnitude of association for pervasive experiences of discrimination appeared stronger for minority ethnic groups (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.68) than the ethnic majority (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.65–3.10). In exploratory mediation analysis, pervasive discrimination minimally explained excess risk among minority ethnic groups (5.1%).
Pervasive experiences of discrimination are associated with slightly increased odds of psychotic disorders and may minimally help explain excess risk for minority ethnic groups.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Regional health issues can be best addressed at the population-level and input from the communities is vital for prioritization of health issues. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The Great Plains IDeA-CTR (GP IDeA-CTR) was developed to increase clinical and translational research (CTR) that can address regional health priorities. Here we describe a collaborative process used to identify regional health priorities using existing surveillance data and community input. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used a participatory approach that included a partnership between the GP IDeA CTR Community-Engagement and Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Research Design Cores to ensure priorities were data driven and also aligned with community-based perceptions of need. First, aggregated surveillance data across Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota was presented to the GP IDeA CTR Community Advisory Board (CAB). Second, CAB members formed small groups and considered the information and generated priority health area lists. Third, small group lists were considered and discussed by the full CAB to finalize priority areas. Finally, the CAB reviewed the priorities annually thereafter. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified priority areas for CTR that included (1) behavioral health, (2) injury prevention, (3) obesity, (4) technology to improve health care access, (5) connecting clinical/community services, and (5) addressing health disparities. These priorities align with population-based surveillance data that show lack of mental health care access, high prevalence of obesity, higher incidence of accidents, and existing racial, ethnic, and geographic health disparities. The CAB highlighted that research was also needed to improve how people can access the health innovations developed through CTR to address the other priority health issues with a goal to have an impact on population health. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: By integrating data- and community-driven approaches we identified regional health priority areas that if addressed, can have significant impact in the GP IDeA CTR region. The priorities are listed on all GP IDeA-CTR funding announcements to encourage CTR in these areas.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is common. It usually starts in adolescence, and without treatment can disrupt key developmental milestones. Existing generic treatments are less effective for young people with SAD than with other anxiety disorders, but an adaptation of an effective adult therapy (CT-SAD-A) has shown promising results for adolescents.
The aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative exploration to contribute towards the evaluation of CT-SAD-A for adoption into Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS).
We used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to analyse the transcripts of interviews with a sample of six young people, six parents and seven clinicians who were learning the treatment.
Three cross-cutting themes were identified: (i) endorsing the treatment; (ii) finding therapy to be collaborative and active; challenging but helpful; and (iii) navigating change in a complex setting. Young people and parents found the treatment to be useful and acceptable, although simultaneously challenging. This was echoed by the clinicians, with particular reference to integrating CT-SAD-A within community CAMHS settings.
The acceptability of the treatment with young people, their parents and clinicians suggests further work is warranted in order to support its development and implementation within CAMHS settings.
Cognitive therapy, based on the Clark and Wells (1995) model, is a first-line treatment for adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD), and findings from research settings suggest it has promise for use with adolescents (Cognitive Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents; CT-SAD-A). However, for the treatment to be suitable for delivery in routine clinical care, two questions need to be addressed.
Can therapists be trained to achieve good outcomes in routine Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), and what are the costs associated with training and treatment?
CAMHS therapists working in two NHS trusts received training in CT-SAD-A. They delivered the treatment to adolescents with SAD during a period of supervised practice. We examined the clinical outcomes for the 12 patients treated during this period, and estimated costs associated with treatment and training.
Treatment produced significant improvements in social anxiety symptoms, general anxiety and depression symptoms, and reductions in putative process measures. Seventy-five per cent (9 out of 12) patients showed a reliable and clinically significant improvement in social anxiety symptoms, and 64% (7/11) lost their primary diagnosis of SAD. The total cost to the NHS of the CT-SAD-A treatment was £4047 (SD = £1003) per adolescent treated, of which £1861 (SD = £358) referred to the specific estimated cost of face-to-face delivery; the remaining cost was for training and supervising therapists who were not previously familiar with the treatment.
This study provides preliminary evidence that clinicians can deliver good patient outcomes for adolescents with SAD in routine CAMHS during a period of supervised practice after receiving a 2-day training workshop. Furthermore, the cost of delivering CT-SAD-A with adolescents appeared to be no more than the cost of delivering CT-SAD with adults.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Medication non-adherence is a widespread problem in glaucoma care, and this abstract shows that a free and easy to implement tool can be used to accurately screen and identify patients who are not adherent to their glaucoma medication. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To compare the accuracy of pharmacy refill data and five measures of self-reported adherence in identifying patients with poor electronically monitored glaucoma medication adherence. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Glaucoma patients (age ≥40, poor self-reported adherence, and ≥1 medication) recruited at the University of Michigan completed five surveys of adherence and 3-months of electronically monitored medication adherence; pharmacy refill data were obtained. Electronically monitored adherence was summarized monthly as percent of doses taken on time. Median monthly adherence ≤80% was considered non-adherent. Pharmacy refill data were reported as the proportion of days covered. The accuracy of the measures in predicting ≤80% adherence was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curves such as estimation of area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 95 patients completed electronic monitoring with a median monthly adherence of 74% (±21%); 53 patients (56%) were non-adherent. Pharmacy refill adherence was not significantly correlated with electronically monitored medication adherence (r=0.12, p=0.2). A single-item adherence question (‘Over the past month, what percentage of your drops do you think you took correctly?’) had the largest correlation with electronically monitored adherence (r=0.47, p<0.0001), the largest AUC for predicting non-adherence (AUC= 0.76, [95% Confidence Interval = 0.66, 0.87]), best accuracy (71%, [61, 82]), and good sensitivity (84%, [73, 96]). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: A free, single-item screening question ('Over the past month, what percentage of your drops do you think you took correctly?') offers an easy-to-implement tool for identifying glaucoma patients with poor medication adherence in clinical practice.
The contributions to this Special Issue, and the books to which they relate, are premised on the idea that the Rule of Law relates to private relationships. I challenge that idea. By exploring solely theoretical ideas, I argue that the Rule of Law – as it is usually defined – does not relate to private relationships and, in consequence, the nexus necessary to invoke a Rule of Law-solution in the circumstances outlined in the books is absent.