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Warfarin remains the preferred anticoagulant for many patients with CHD. The complexity of management led our centre to shift from a nurse-physician-managed model with many providers to a pharmacist-managed model with a centralized anticoagulation team. We aim to describe the patient cohort managed by our Anticoagulation Program and evaluate the impact of implementation of this consistent, pharmacist-managed model on time in therapeutic range, an evidence-based marker for clinical outcomes.
A single-centre retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the transition to a pharmacist-managed model to improve anticoagulation management at a tertiary pediatric heart centre. The percent time in therapeutic range for a cohort managed by both models was compared using a paired t-test. Patient characteristics and time in therapeutic range of the program were also described.
After implementing the pharmacist-managed model, the time in therapeutic range for a cohort of 58 patients increased from 65.7 to 80.2% (p < .001), and our Anticoagulation Program consistently maintained this improvement from 2013 to 2022. The cohort of patients managed by the Anticoagulation Program in 2022 included 119 patients with a median age of 24 years (range 19 months–69 years) with the most common indication for warfarin being mechanical valve replacement (n = 81, 68%).
Through a practice change incorporating a collaborative, centralized, pharmacist-managed model, this cohort of CHD patients on warfarin had a fifteen percent increase in time in therapeutic range, which was sustained for nine years.
To assess whether measurement and feedback of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) skin concentrations can improve CHG bathing practice across multiple intensive care units (ICUs).
A before-and-after quality improvement study measuring patient CHG skin concentrations during 6 point-prevalence surveys (3 surveys each during baseline and intervention periods).
The study was conducted across 7 geographically diverse ICUs with routine CHG bathing.
Adult patients in the medical ICU.
CHG skin concentrations were measured at the neck, axilla, and inguinal region using a semiquantitative colorimetric assay. Aggregate unit-level CHG skin concentration measurements from the baseline period and each intervention period survey were reported back to ICU leadership, which then used routine education and quality improvement activities to improve CHG bathing practice. We used multilevel linear models to assess the impact of intervention on CHG skin concentrations.
We enrolled 681 (93%) of 736 eligible patients; 92% received a CHG bath prior to survey. At baseline, CHG skin concentrations were lowest on the neck, compared to axillary or inguinal regions (P < .001). CHG was not detected on 33% of necks, 19% of axillae, and 18% of inguinal regions (P < .001 for differences in body sites). During the intervention period, ICUs that used CHG-impregnated cloths had a 3-fold increase in patient CHG skin concentrations as compared to baseline (P < .001).
Routine CHG bathing performance in the ICU varied across multiple hospitals. Measurement and feedback of CHG skin concentrations can be an important tool to improve CHG bathing practice.
We examine some of the genetic features of neuroticism (N) taking as an animal model the Maudsley Reactive (MR) and Maudsley Nonreactive (MNR) rat strains which were selectively bred, respectively, for high and low open-field defecation (OFD) starting in the late 1950s. To draw analogies with human genetic studies, we explore the genetic correlation of N with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We review progress with the rat model and developments in the field of human complex trait genetics, including genetic association studies that relate to current understanding of the genetics of N. The widespread differences in the tone of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system that have been found between the Maudsley strains, particularly those observed in the colon, may underly the differences in OFD (MNR, higher sympathetic tone and zero defecation). In humans, a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported six genes contributing to IBS, four of which were implicated in mood and anxiety disorders or were expressed in the brain, with three of the four also expressed in the nerve fibers and ganglia of the gut. Heritability of N is estimated at around 50% in twin and family studies, and GWASs identified hundreds of loci, enabling estimation of genome-wide correlations (rg) with other traits. Significantly, the estimate for rg between risk of IBS, anxiety, N, and depression was >0.5 and suggested genetic pleiotropy without evidence for causal mechanisms. Findings on the adrenergic pharmacology of the colon, coupled with new understanding of the role of the locus ceruleus in modifying afferent information from this organ, generate hypotheses that challenge traditional cause/effect notions about the relationship of the central nervous system to peripheral events in response to stress, suggest specific targets for gene action in the Maudsley model and emphasize the value of reciprocal evaluation of genetic architecture underlying N in rodents and humans.
While existing work has demonstrated that campaign donations can buy access to benefits such as favorable legislation and preferential contracting, we highlight another use of campaign contributions: buying reductions in regulatory enforcement. Specifically, we argue that in return for campaign contributions, Colombian mayors who rely on donor-funding (compared with those who do not) choose not to enforce sanctions against illegal deforestation activities. Using a regression discontinuity design, we show that deforestation is significantly higher in municipalities that elect donor-funded as opposed to self-funded politicians. Further analysis shows that only part of this effect can be explained by differences in contracting practices by donor-funded mayors. Instead, evidence of heterogeneity in the effects according to the presence of alternative formal and informal enforcement institutions, and analysis of fire clearance, support the interpretation that campaign contributions buy reductions in the enforcement of environmental regulations.
White kidney bean extract (WKBE) is a nutraceutical often advocated as an anti-obesity agent. The main proposed mechanism for these effects is alpha-amylase inhibition, thereby slowing carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Thus, it is possible that WKBE could impact the gut microbiota and modulate gut health. We investigated the effects of supplementing 20 healthy adults with WKBE for 1 week in a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial on the composition of the gut microbiota, gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation (faecal calprotectin), GI symptoms, and stool habits. We conducted in vitro experiments and used a gut model system to explore potential inhibition of alpha-amylase. We gained qualitative insight into participant experiences of using WKBE via focus groups. WKBE supplementation decreased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and increased that of Firmicutes, however, there were no significant differences in post-intervention gut microbiota measurements between the WKBE and control. There were no significant effects on GI inflammation or symptoms related to constipation, or stool consistency or frequency. Our in vitro and gut model system analyses showed no effects of WKBE on alpha-amylase activity. Our findings suggest that WKBE may modulate the gut microbiota in healthy adults, however, the underlying mechanism is unlikely due to active site inhibition of alpha-amylase.
Early in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, the Ukrainian Ministry of Health (MoH) implemented policy reform to allow for pre-hospital whole blood transfusion (pWBT). Team Rubicon (TR) worked with a multinational group of experts to disseminate training that accelerated the implementation of pWBT across the country.
TR utilized an assess, align, and act (A3) approach to drive the pWBT implementation. TR established relationships with Ukrainian providers to understand current needs, restrictions, and protocols for pWBT. TR aligned pWBT advocacy efforts, working with the disaster medicine program at Ivano-Frankivsk Medical National University to create a local lead advocate. Existing and novel coordination mechanisms were used to unite and inform MoH, World Health Organization, Non-Governmental Organizations, and local health systems. Finally, TR coordinated a multispecialty, multi-national team of healthcare providers who developed and delivered a training package in alignment with national guidelines utilizing a combination of didactics, videos, and demonstrations. From August to October of 2022, TR conducted pWBT trainings across Ukraine. Pre- and post-surveys were utilized to determine comfort with pWBT and usefulness of the training.
TR emerged as the point of reference for pWBT in Ukraine. 109 individuals from over 14 organizations were trained. Participants included 69 physicians, 23 paramedics, 7 nurses, and 10 other professionals. 95% of those surveyed had not received prior pWBT training. Participants reported increased comfort levels, with average pre- and post-course comfort scores of 1.7 and 3.2 (4=very comfortable), respectively. The majority of participants found the training useful (average score of 3.8, 4=very useful). Feedback demonstrated high satisfaction ratings and an increased awareness of the regulatory changes.
TR utilized the A3 model to drive a coalition that supported policy reform and trauma system improvements in Ukraine. TR’s ability to leverage international medical expertise, work collaboratively with MoH, and provide material resources supported local implementation of pWBT.
As of October 2022, the civilian casualty count of the invasion of Ukraine is reported to be 16,295, with actual figures believed to be considerably higher. As explosive trauma continues to terrorize populations, frontline medical personnel are faced with escalating resource constraints including transport, imaging modalities, and electricity. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) is considered the gold standard in acute trauma evaluation, but very few hospitals or pre-hospital medics have access to or training in POCUS.
In collaboration with the Ukrainian Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization, and the Global Health Program at Butterfly Network, Team Rubicon developed and conducted 64 practical trauma trainings and donated 50 Butterfly iQ+ portable ultrasound devices in Ukraine between August and October, 2022. Of these trainings, 19 specifically focused on the use of POCUS for trauma. Pre- and post-surveys were deployed to determine demographics, comfort level with POCUS for trauma care, and usefulness of the course.
In total, 149 individuals were trained in POCUS for trauma. Of these, 130 were physicians, 15 were paramedics, three were RNs, and one was a pharmacist. Only 14.8% of these clinicians self-reported any previous POCUS training. All participants reported an increase in comfort level, with an average pre- and post-course comfort scores of 1.9 and 3.3 (4=very comfortable), respectively. General satisfaction with the training was high (average score of 9.8/10). Qualitative feedback commended the quality and novelty of this training, requested further examples of pathology, and endorsed more POCUS trainings, generally. The most critical lesson learned was the need to re-orient training around the foundations of POCUS given low levels of experience and training.
Access and training in POCUS for trauma is critical for resource-constrained medical personnel operating in conflict-affected communities. A one-day POCUS practicum-oriented course is feasible to support awareness and proficiency.
In March 2022, Team Rubicon deployed an EMT Type 1 mobile team to provide medical care for internally displaced people in Ukraine. Regional medical facilities and universities identified a need for training programs to prepare for the expected increase in wartime casualties.
Deployed medical teams researched and compiled initial course content. Presentations were prepared and conducted with the assistance of Ukrainian translators. The curriculum was expanded to include whole blood transfusion and point of care ultrasound. After the prioritization of needs by the MOH, Team Rubicon deployed a seven-member team to conduct training in 16 cities over two months. They provided instruction in whole blood transfusion, hemorrhage control, blast injuries, prehospital triage, shock management, point of care ultrasound, and treatment of chemical exposures. Surveys were conducted pre- and post-training to assess the usefulness of the training provided.
In two months, a total of 1549 unique individuals were trained. The participants included 769 physicians, 244 nurses, 299 paramedics, 83 hospital administrators, and 154 additional professionals. They included 614 males and 935 females. The number of participants in each course included: 477 for hemorrhage control, 564 for treatment of chemical exposures, 483 for blast injury and field trauma, 412 for pre-hospital and triage training, 135 for point-of-care ultrasound, and 154 for whole blood transfusion.
With the assistance of the Ukrainian Ministry of Health, an NGO was able to conduct 64 sessions training 1549 individuals. This experience demonstrates the ability to create a robust educational platform to fulfill the medical needs of a community affected by warfare.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To compare the effects of dietary fiber supplementation based on fermentability and viscosity on phosphorus fractional absorption and the gut microbiome in a rat model of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 25-week-old Cy/+ male rats (CKD hereafter) will be randomly assigned to receive one of four fiber treatments (10% w/w each) based on fermentability and viscosity: 1) Cellulose (-fermentability, -viscosity), 2) inulin (+fermentability, -viscosity), 3) psyllium husk (-fermentability, +viscosity), or 4) pectin (+ fermentability, +viscosity). Diets will be formulated with a semipurified diet containing 0.7% phosphorus. Treatments will last for 10 weeks, and rats will be euthanized at 35 weeks of age, where animals have reached kidney failure. Intravenous and oral 33P will be used for intestinal phosphorus fractional absorption and cecal/fecal samples will be obtained at euthanasia for microbiome assessment using shotgun metagenomics. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our preliminary data show that fermentable dietary fiber (inulin) impacted phosphorus homeostasis by increasing the circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (a bone-derived hormone that increases phosphorus excretion in urine) and lowering circulating levels of phosphorus in the Cy/+ male rat model of progressive chronic kidney disease. We hypothesize that dietary fiber impacts phosphorus absorption in gut microbiome-dependent and independent mechanisms. For example, fermentable fiber enhances the production of short-chain fatty acids, lowering the intraluminal pH, and enhancing mineral solubility and absorption. Meanwhile, viscous fibers may encapsulate minerals limiting their absorption if these fibers are non-fermentable. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Hyperphosphatemia, or high circulating phosphorus, is a major factor in the pathogenesis of CKD-MBD. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia is focused on reducing intestinal absorption. However, available therapies vary in their efficacy and focus on phosphorus absorption in the small intestine, ignoring the possible impact of the large intestine.
There is an increasing recognition of the benefits of sustained community engagement (CE) that accrue to academic health centers and the communities they serve. However, the success and sustainability of CE projects rely on the efforts of individual faculty, learners, and community members, for whom CE efforts are typically added to their professional and personal priorities and responsibilities. This competition for time and resources between priorities and CE can discourage academic medical faculty from participating in CE activities. The Stacked Community Engagement model is proposed to synergize or “stack” responsibilities and goals onto the scaffolding of CE projects.
We examined the literature and expert CE practitioner opinion to identify the challenges faced by community-engaged academic faculty and the key characteristics of CE projects that successfully align and integrate with the priorities of faculty, learners, and community members. We synthesized this information to develop the conceptual Stacked CE model for developing CE academic medical faculty, then illustrated the model in heterogeneous CE programs to explore its generalizability, validity, and robustness.
The Stacked CE model, when applied to a specific nutrition education program (The Food Doctors) and outreach program (StreetLife Communities), provided a practical framework for examining the sustained success of a partnership between Medical College of Wisconsin faculty and medical students and the community.
The Stacked CE model is a meaningful framework for developing community-engaged academic medical faculty. By identifying overlap and integrating CE into professional activities with intention, CE practitioners can benefit from the deeper connections and sustainability.
Community engagement (CE) is critical for advancing health equity and a key approach for promoting inclusive clinical and translational science. However, it requires a workforce trained to effectively design, implement, and evaluate health promotion and improvement strategies through meaningful collaboration with community members. This paper presents an approach for designing CE curricula for research, education, clinical care, and public health learners. A general pedagogical framework is presented to support curriculum development with the inclusion of community members as facilitators or faculty. The overall goal of the curriculum is envisioned as enabling learners to effectively demonstrate the principles of CE in working with community members on issues of concern to communities to promote health and well-being. We highlight transformations needed for the commonly used critical service-learning model and the importance of faculty well-versed in CE. Courses may include didactics and practicums with well-defined objectives and evaluation components. Because of the importance of building and maintaining relationships in CE, a preparatory phase is recommended prior to experiential learning, which should be guided and designed to include debriefing and reflective learning. Depending on the scope of the course, evaluation should include community perspectives on the experience.
The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) has emerged out of the quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology. This approach identifies psychopathology constructs based on patterns of co-variation among signs and symptoms. The initial HiTOP model, which was published in 2017, is based on a large literature that spans decades of research. HiTOP is a living model that undergoes revision as new data become available. Here we discuss advantages and practical considerations of using this system in psychiatric practice and research. We especially highlight limitations of HiTOP and ongoing efforts to address them. We describe differences and similarities between HiTOP and existing diagnostic systems. Next, we review the types of evidence that informed development of HiTOP, including populations in which it has been studied and data on its validity. The paper also describes how HiTOP can facilitate research on genetic and environmental causes of psychopathology as well as the search for neurobiologic mechanisms and novel treatments. Furthermore, we consider implications for public health programs and prevention of mental disorders. We also review data on clinical utility and illustrate clinical application of HiTOP. Importantly, the model is based on measures and practices that are already used widely in clinical settings. HiTOP offers a way to organize and formalize these techniques. This model already can contribute to progress in psychiatry and complement traditional nosologies. Moreover, HiTOP seeks to facilitate research on linkages between phenotypes and biological processes, which may enable construction of a system that encompasses both biomarkers and precise clinical description.
To describe 12-month outcomes for beneficiaries in the 100% Medicare Fee-for-Service (FFS) population with primary and recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI).
A retrospective, descriptive, cohort study of CDI claims from the 100% Medicare FFS population, with a first CDI diagnosis between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2016.
Any US-based provider that submitted inpatient or outpatient CDI diagnosis claims to Medicare FFS.
The study included patients aged ≥65 years with continuous enrollment in Medicare Parts A, B, and D during 12 months before and 12 months after the index period.
The number of CDI and recurrent (rCDI) episodes, healthcare resource utilization, treatments, complications, and procedures were calculated for pre-index and follow-up periods. The data were stratified by number of rCDI episodes (ie, no rCDI, 1 rCDI, 2 rCDI, and ≥3 rCDI).
Of 268,762 patients with an index CDI, 34.7% had at least 1 recurrence. Of those who had 1 recurrence, 59.1% had a second recurrence and of those who had 2 recurrences, 58.4% had ≥3 recurrences. Incident psychiatric conditions occurred in 11.3%–18.2% of each rCDI cohort; 6.0% of patients with rCDI underwent subtotal colectomy, and 1.1% of patients underwent diverting loop ileostomy. After each CDI episode, ∼1 in 5 patients had a documented sepsis event. Over the 12-month follow-up, 30% of patients experienced sepsis, and sepsis occurred in 27.0% of the cohort with no rCDI, compared to 35.5% of patients in the rCDI cohorts.
Elderly patients with CDI and rCDI experienced a significant clinical burden and complications.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Palliative care (PC) is patient and family-centered supportive care intended to improve symptom management, reduce caregiver burden, coordinate care, and improve quality of life for patients diagnosed with serious illness. Optimally, PC is begun close to initial diagnosis and delivered in synchrony with disease-specific treatment until symptom relief or patient death. The purpose of this study was to examine cancer survivors’ knowledge and perceptions of PC using a nationally representative sample of US adults from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).
A total of 593 HINTS respondents reported a personal history of cancer and were included in the sample (55.56% female; mean age of 65.88 years, SD = 18.21; mean time from diagnosis 13.83 years, SD = 18.21). Weighted logistic regression models were conducted to identify correlates of PC knowledge.
Of the 593 cancer survivors in the sample, 66% (N = 378) reported that they had never heard of PC, 18% (N = 112) reported knowing a little bit about PC, and 17% (N = 95) reported knowing what PC is and could explain it to someone else. In multivariable analysis, survivors of color (Hispanic/Latino, Black, Asian, American Indian, and Pacific Islander), males, and those less educated were significantly less likely to report knowledge of PC. Among survivors who did report knowledge of PC, a lack of distinction between differing modes of supportive care exists.
Significance of results
These findings suggest a need to increase PC knowledge among cancer survivors with the ultimate goal of addressing disparities in PC acceptance and utilization.
Research on marital quality and child well-being is currently limited by its common use of geographically constrained, homogenous, and often cross-sectional (or at least temporally limited) samples. We build upon previous work showing multiple trajectories of marital quality and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (NLSY79) regarding mothers and their children (inclusive of ages 5–14). We examine how indicators of child well-being are linked to parental trajectories of marital quality (happiness, communication, and conflict). Results showed children whose parents had consistently poor marital quality over the life course exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems, poorer health, lower quality home environments, and lower math and vocabulary scores than children of parents in consistently higher-quality marriages. Group differences remained stable over time for child health, home environment, and vocabulary scores. Group differences for internalizing problems declined over time, whereas group differences increased for externalizing problems and math scores. Initial advantages for females across nearly all indicators of child well-being tended to shrink over time, with boys often moving slightly ahead by mid adolescence. We discuss the implications of these findings in regard to children's development and well-being and suggest treating marriage as a monolithic construct betrays important variation within marriage itself.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This project seeks to identify unique host responses that are biomarkers for specific urethral pathogens, and which can be used in the development of point-of-care (POC) STI diagnostics. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: How Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and other common STIs, e.g. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, evade immunity and elicit pathology in the male urethra is poorly understood. Our objective is to determine how STI-infected urethral epithelial cells, as well as the uninfected ‘bystander’ cells with which infected cells communicate, respond to CT and other STIs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We evaluated how immortalized urethral cell lines - including transduced human urethral epithelial cells (THUECs) - respond to increasing doses of CT infectious particles using in vitro one-step progeny assays performed in the presence or absence of cycloheximide, a drug that inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis. We will perform concurrent single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and multiplex cytokine analyses to determine how different CT doses impact the transcriptomes of infected and bystander urethral epithelial cells and modulate cytokine production of the overall monolayer. Results of these experiments will inform the feasibility of performing similar analyses in situ using urethral swabs from men with clinically diagnosed urethritis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that immune-competent urethral cell monolayers strongly resist CT infection, unless most of the cells are simultaneously infected. This suggests that uninfected bystander cells sense CT-infected cells and secrete soluble factors that may act to limit CT proliferation in infected cells and to inform remaining uninfected cells that a potential pathogen is present. We anticipate that our scRNA-seq and cytokine analyses will identify both specific effector pathways that protect against CT and intracellular signals that modulate them. We speculate that these pathways and signals may differ during infection with CT and other STIs. Importantly, we anticipate that our in vitro model of CT infection will be highly representative of in situ immune responses observed in urethras of infected men. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: In men, common STIs including CT are usually managed syndromically due to a lack of POC diagnostics. By determining how STIs elicit urethral inflammation and identifying countermeasures that STIs use to evade urethral immunity, we can identify host responses that serve as biomarkers for urethritis, generally, and for specific urethral pathogens.
This chapter continues the analysis of early seventeenth century historical documents containing the personal marks or “signatures” of commoners. The seventeenth century is a critical period for understanding literacy in Japanese history. It was a time when use of the written word spread rapidly, as shown by the rapid increase in the circulation of written documents. It is important to realize that even at the very beginning of the early modern period there was a core of villagers who were capable of a minimum level of reading, writing and calculation skills which were necessary for local village administration within the larger bakuhan state. Yokota Fuyuhiko labeled this developing class of village leaders a “cultural middle class.” In short, by the late seventeenth century through the eighteenth century, an educated, literate class had emerged, even in farm villages.
How did a literate class emerge in villages to make a successful administrative system possible? This subject is important not only for the history of early modern education but also when considering more broadly the relationship between the Japanese people and the culture of letters. In order to come to grips with such fundamental questions, it will be necessary to go beyond the traditional methods of educational history research, such as looking at school institutions like tenaraisho (writing schools) or educational materials like ōraimono (textbooks).
During the first half of the seventeenth century, before educational materials were widespread, popular literacy is a more useful theme in determining cultural development than schools. This approach requires the use of historical documents that survive in adequate quantity to reveal how individuals identified themselves on documents in the form of signatures: ciphers (kaō), simplified ciphers (ryakuō), stem stamps (the blunt ends of brushes, called fude jikuin), fingerprints and other personal marks. Yokota Fuyuhiko has shown that early seventeenth century historical documents reveal small landholding farmers who signified their membership in a corporate village (sōchū) with simplified ciphers. Even with the development of the corporate village and large landowning peasants (sōbyakushō), subordinate or small landholding farmers came to have their signatures included on village documents. In other words, signatures made by most of the population can be found on documents from this period.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our research focuses on determining rural-urban disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management to improve COPD health outcomes in rural areas. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Several methods exist to distinguish rural from urban areas, but it is not clear which method relates most directly to rural-urban health care disparities. To address this, we compared different measures of rurality to measures of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) processes of care among a national sample of veterans. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Retrospective analysis of patients with COPD (2016-2019 by ICD-10 codes) using national Veterans Affairs (VA) data. We assessed rurality by: 1) patient’s residential address, 2) assigned primary care clinic address, and 3) drive time from the patient’s residence to closest primary care clinic. Rurality designations of the residential address and primary care clinic address into urban, rural, and highly rural areas are based on the Rural Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes. The dependent variables were binary outcomes of: 1) documentation of a pulmonary clinic encounter and 2) evidence of spirometry to confirm the diagnosis of COPD. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 6,765,951 veterans, 1,157,002 (17%) had COPD (Table 1). Although approximately 40% of patients with COPD reside in addresses that are rural and highly rural, a large majority are assigned to primary care clinics in urban areas (82.8%) and reside within 30 minutes to the closest primary care clinic (76.7%) (Table 2). Compared to defining rurality based on patient’s residential address or drive time to closest primary care, defining rurality based on the assigned primary care clinic address was associated with a larger disparity in rates of pulmonary encounter. In contrast, the drive time from the patient’s residence to the closest primary care was the strongest predictor of receipt of spirometry (Figure 1 and Table 3). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Estimates of the severity of rural-urban disparities varied based on the definition of rurality used. For two process measures, definitions of rurality based on where the patient received primary care generated more evidence of disparities than definitions based solely on the patient’s residential address.