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Body weight variability (BWV) negatively affects the incidence and outcomes of various diseases, but the nature of the association between BWV and depression remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that BWV is associated with the risk of new-onset depression.
Data from a nationwide population-based cohort in the Korean National Health Insurance Service database were analyzed for 6 598 570 adults with no history of depression and reports of at least three health examinations. BWV was estimated using variability independent of the mean indices and divided into quartiles (Q1 lowest, Q4 highest BWV). Cox proportional hazard models were applied to assess the risk of depression according to the quartile of BWV.
The incident rate for depression from Q1 to Q4 of BWV was 20.7, 20.3, 20.8, and 22.2 per 1000 person-years, respectively. BWV, especially high BWV, was associated with an increased risk of depression after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The hazard ratio (HR) of new-onset depression was highest in Q4 relative to Q1 in the total population (HR 1.12, p < 0.0001) and was higher in women than in men (HR 1.72 v. 1.16, p < 0.0001). In stratified analyses, regardless of obesity or weight change status at baseline, the risk of depression was increased when bodyweight fluctuated highly during follow-up.
High BWV was associated with an increased risk of depression. Further studies need to evaluate the role of high BWV with respect to the onset of depression.
Predicting future states of psychopathology such as depressive episodes has been a hallmark initiative in mental health research. Dynamical systems theory has proposed that rises in certain ‘early warning signals’ (EWSs) in time-series data (e.g. auto-correlation, temporal variance, network connectivity) may precede impending changes in disorder severity. The current study investigates whether rises in these EWSs over time are associated with future changes in disorder severity among a group of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Thirty-one patients with MDD completed the study, which consisted of daily smartphone-delivered surveys over 8 weeks. Daily positive and negative affect were collected for the time-series analyses. A rolling window approach was used to determine whether rises in auto-correlation of total affect, temporal standard deviation of total affect, and overall network connectivity in individual affect items were predictive of increases in depression symptoms.
Results suggested that rises in auto-correlation were significantly associated with worsening in depression symptoms (r = 0.41, p = 0.02). Results indicated that neither rises in temporal standard deviation (r = −0.23, p = 0.23) nor in network connectivity (r = −0.12, p = 0.59) were associated with changes in depression symptoms.
This study more rigorously examines whether rises in EWSs were associated with future depression symptoms in a larger group of patients with MDD. Results indicated that rises in auto-correlation were the only EWS that was associated with worsening future changes in depression.
This report tests the association of self-reported symptoms of irritability with overt behavior of anger attacks (uncharacteristic sudden bouts of anger that are disproportionate to situation and associated with autonomic activation).
Participants of the Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response in Clinical Care study who completed Massachusetts General Hospital Anger Attacks questionnaire were included (n = 293). At each visit, the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the 16-item Concise Associated Symptom Tracking scale were used to measure depression, anxiety, and irritability. In those with anger attacks present v. those without anger attacks, separate t tests and mixed model analyses compared afore-mentioned symptoms at baseline and changes with treatment respectively. As anger attacks may occur without aggressive behaviors, analyses were repeated based only on the presence of aggressive behaviors.
At baseline, those with anger attacks (n = 109) v. those without anger attacks (n = 184) had similar levels of depression but higher levels of irritability [effect size (d) = 0.80] and anxiety (d = 0.32). With acute-phase treatment, participants with anger attacks experienced a greater reduction in irritability (p < 0.001) but not in depression (p = 0.813) or anxiety (p = 0.771) as compared to those without anger attacks. Yet, irritability levels at week-8 were higher in those with anger attacks (d = 0.32) than those without anger attacks. Similar results were found in participants with aggressive behaviors.
The presence of anger attacks in outpatients with major depressive disorder may identify a sub-group of patients with persistently elevated irritability.
Background: Inadequate response to antidepressant monotherapy in women with major depressive disorder is common. Testosterone administration has been shown to be an effective augmentation therapy in depressed hypogonadal men with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-resistant depression. However, the effects of low-dose testosterone as augmentation therapy in women with treatment-resistant depression have not been studied.
Methods: Low-dose transdermal testosterone (300 mcg/day, Intrinsa, Procter and Gamble Pharmaceuticals) was administered to nine women with treatment-resistant depression in an 8 week open-label pilot protocol.
Results: There was a statistically significant improvement in mean Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores at 2 weeks, sustained through the 8 week period. Two-thirds of subjects achieved a response to the treatment (decrease in MADRS score of ≥50%) and 33% achieved remission (final MADRS score <10) after 8 weeks of therapy. Mean levels of fatigue, as measured by the MADRS lassitude item, significantly decreased at all time points with a mean 38% decrease from baseline to 8 weeks.
Conclusion: These preliminary pilot data suggest that low-dose transdermal testosterone may be an effective augmentation therapy in women with treatment-resistant depression. Further studies are warranted.
Objective/Introduction: We sought to characterize the impact of the 90-item Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) subscales for paranoid ideation (PI) and psychoticism (P) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), on acute anti-depressant response and on relapse prevention.
Methods: Subjects with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-diagnosed non-psychotic MDD were recruited into a clinical trial of open-label fluoxetine 10–60 mg/day for 12 weeks, followed by double-blind randomization of responders (n=262) to fluoxetine continuation or placebo for 12 months. PI and P were assessed with the patient-rated SCL-90. The association of these symptoms with response to treatment was assessed by logistic regression.
Results: We found significant decreases in PI and P during acute treatment phase for fluoxetine responders and nonresponders, although only 10.3% and 7.5% of patients experienced a ≥50% reduction in PI and P scores, respectively. Neither PI nor P scores significantly predicted time to relapse. P scores predicted a lower response rate to treatment with fluoxetine.
Discussion: The results of the present study suggest that there is a significant relationship between the presence of psychoticism in patients with nonpsychotic MDD, and the likelihood of overall depressive symptom improvement following a trial of monotherapy with fluoxetine.
Conclusion: An increased burden of psychoticism in depressed subjects may confer poorer response to fluoxetine, but not increased risk of relapse among fluoxetine responders.
To examine the prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the A2756G polymorphism of methionine synthase (MS), and their impact on antidepressant response.
We screened 224 subjects (52% female, mean age 39 ± 11 years) with SCID-diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD), and obtained 194 genetic samples. 49 subjects (49% female, mean age 36 ± 11 years) participated in a 12-week open clinical trial of fluoxetine 20–60 mg/day. Association between clinical response and C677T and A2756G polymorphisms, folate, B12, and homocysteine was examined.
Prevalence of the C677T and A2756G polymorphisms was consistent with previous reports (C/C = 41%, C/T = 47%, T/T = 11%, A/A = 66%, A/G = 29%, G/G = 4%). In the fluoxetine-treated subsample (n = 49), intent-to-treat (ITT) response rates were 47% for C/C subjects and 46% for pooled C/T and T/T subjects (nonsignificant). ITT response rates were 38% for A/A subjects and 60% for A/G subjects (nonsignificant), with no subjects exhibiting the G/G homozygote. Mean baseline plasma B12 was significantly lower in A/G subjects compared to A/A, but folate and homocysteine levels were not affected by genetic status. Plasma folate was negatively associated with treatment response.
The C677T and A2756G polymorphisms did not significantly affect antidepressant response. These preliminary findings require replication in larger samples.
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