To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We study the link between fiscal austerity and Nazi electoral success. Voting data from a thousand districts and a hundred cities for four elections between 1930 and 1933 show that areas more affected by austerity (spending cuts and tax increases) had relatively higher vote shares for the Nazi Party. We also find that the localities with relatively high austerity experienced relatively high suffering (measured by mortality rates) and these areas’ electorates were more likely to vote for the Nazi Party. Our findings are robust to a range of specifications including an instrumental variable strategy and a border-pair policy discontinuity design.
We evaluate the extent to which Coca-Cola tried to influence research in the Global Energy Balance Network, as revealed by correspondence between the company and leading public health academics obtained through Freedom-of-Information (FOI) requests.
US state FOI requests were made in the years 2015–2016 by US Right to Know, a non-profit consumer and public health group, obtaining 18 030 pages of emails covering correspondence between The Coca-Cola Company and public health academics at West Virginia University and University of Colorado, leading institutions of the Global Energy Balance Network. We performed a narrative, thematic content analysis of 18 036 pages of Coca-Cola Company’s emails, coded between May and December 2016, against a taxonomy of political influence strategies.
Emails identified two main strategies, regarding information and messaging and constituency building, associated with a series of practices and mechanisms that could influence public health nutrition. Despite publications claiming independence, we found evidence that Coca-Cola made significant efforts to divert attention from its role as a funding source through diversifying funding partners and, in some cases, withholding information on the funding involved. We also found documentation that Coca-Cola supported a network of academics, as an ‘email family’ that promoted messages associated with its public relations strategy, and sought to support those academics in advancing their careers and building their affiliated public health and medical institutions.
Coca-Cola sought to obscure its relationship with researchers, minimise the public perception of its role and use these researchers to promote industry-friendly messaging. More robust approaches for managing conflicts of interest are needed to address diffuse and obscured patterns of industry influence.
To (i) evaluate the extent to which Coca-Cola’s ‘Transparency Lists’ of 218 researchers that it funds are comprehensive; (ii) map all scientific research acknowledging funding from Coca-Cola; (iii) identify those institutions, authors and research topics funded by Coca-Cola; and (iv) use Coca-Cola’s disclosure to gauge whether its funded researchers acknowledge the source of funding.
Using Web of Science Core Collection database, we retrieved all studies declaring receipt of direct funding from the Coca-Cola brand, published between 2008 and 2016. Using conservative eligibility criteria, we iteratively removed studies and recreated Coca-Cola’s transparency lists using our data. We used network analysis and structural topic modelling to assess the structure, organization and thematic focus of Coca-Cola’s research enterprise, and string matching to evaluate the completeness of Coca-Cola’s transparency lists.
Three hundred and eighty-nine articles, published in 169 different journals, and authored by 907 researchers, cite funding from The Coca-Cola Company. Of these, Coca-Cola acknowledges funding forty-two authors (<5 %). We observed that the funded research focuses mostly on nutrition and emphasizes the importance of physical activity and the concept of ‘energy balance’.
The Coca-Cola Company appears to have failed to declare a comprehensive list of its research activities. Further, several funded authors appear to have failed to declare receipt of funding. Most of Coca-Cola’s research support is directed towards physical activity and disregards the role of diet in obesity. Despite initiatives for greater transparency of research funding, the full scale of Coca-Cola’s involvement is still not known.
Background: The importance of economic evaluation in decision making is growing with increasing budgetary pressures on health systems. Diverse economic evidence is available for a range of interventions across national contexts within Europe, but little attention has been given to identifying evidence gaps that, if filled, could contribute to more efficient allocation of resources. One objective of the Research Agenda for Health Economic Evaluation project is to determine the most important methodological evidence gaps for the ten highest burden conditions in the European Union (EU), and to suggest ways of filling these gaps.
Methods: The highest burden conditions in the EU by Disability Adjusted Life Years were determined using the Global Burden of Disease study. Clinical interventions were identified for each condition based on published guidelines, and economic evaluations indexed in MEDLINE were mapped to each intervention. A panel of public health and health economics experts discussed the evidence during a workshop and identified evidence gaps.
Results: The literature analysis contributed to identifying cross-cutting methodological and technical issues, which were considered by the expert panel to derive methodological research priorities.
Conclusions: The panel suggests a research agenda for health economics which incorporates the use of real-world evidence in the assessment of new and existing interventions; increased understanding of cost-effectiveness according to patient characteristics beyond the “-omics” approach to inform both investment and disinvestment decisions; methods for assessment of complex interventions; improved cross-talk between economic evaluations from health and other sectors; early health technology assessment; and standardized, transferable approaches to economic modeling.
Almost 100 years have passed since J.M. Swaine, the assistant entomologist in charge of Forest Insect Investigations, wrote, “Canadian bark-beetles: a preliminary classification, with an account of the habits and means of control”. The goal was to “put into the hands of practical foresters information of inestimable practical value… to prevent the continued loss of timber now being destroyed” by “the most insidious enemies of the forest”. In this paper, we celebrate Swaine’s pioneering work by summarising the foundational aspects of his early treatise of 1918: the “general habits” of bark beetles, classifications of their behaviour, causes of population increase, and mitigation tactics. In the founding text, Swaine identified all major Dendroctonus Erichson (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) bark beetles found in Canada, although details on life histories were scarce. We summarise current knowledge of the life histories and population dynamics of the spruce beetle, D. rufipennis Kirby; the Douglas-fir beetle, D. pseudotsugae Hopkins; the eastern larch beetle, D. simplex; and address the current range expansion of mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae Hopkins. We review how aspects of global change, such as invasive species, have altered the population dynamics of certain bark beetles. Finally, we conclude with lessons from two of the many past contributors to bark beetle ecology in Canada, J.M. Swaine and H.A. Richmond.
Gram-negative bacilli frequently cause epidemics in high-risk newborn intensive care units. Recently, an epidemic caused by a multiply-resistant K. pneumoniae, serotype 21, occurred in the Vanderbilt University intensive care nursery. The background of this outbreak included an increasing endemic nosocomial sepsis rate, operation of the facility in excess of rated capacity, and increasingly inadequate nurse-to-patient staffing ratios. The epidemic lasted 11 weeks; 26 (12%) of the 232 infants at risk in the unit became colonized. Five infants developed systemic illness and one died. Cohorting, reinforcement of strict handwashing and isolation procedures, and closure of the unit to outborn admissions resulted in rapid termination of the outbreak. Followup studies performed on infants colonized with the epidemic bacterium demonstrated persistent fecal shedding up to 13 months following discharge from the hospital. This epidemic had a detrimental influence on high-risk newborn and obstetric health care delivery in an area encompassing portions of three states. Under a system of progressively more sophisticated referral units, nosocomial infections occurring at a tertiary center can have an impact on other hospitals within the network.
There has been a substantial rise in ‘economic suicides' in the Great
Recessions afflicting Europe and North America. We estimate that the Great
Recession is associated with at least 10 000 additional economic suicides
between 2008 and 2010. A critical question for policy and psychiatric
practice is whether these suicide rises are inevitable. Marked
cross-national variations in suicides in the recession offer one clue that
they are potentially avoidable. Job loss, debt and foreclosure increase
risks of suicidal thinking. A range of interventions, from upstream
return-to-work programmes through to antidepressant prescriptions may help
mitigate suicide risk during economic downturn.
Why are researchers studying the health effects of economic change reaching markedly varying conclusions? To understand these differences, we first systematically searched Web of Science for the literature on recessions and health yielding 461 articles and 14,401 cited documents. We then undertook a network analysis of co-citation pattern by disciplines, journals and backgrounds of the authors, followed by a chronological review of the literature, to trace the evolution of ideas. We then examined the extent to which earlier literature predicted what has happened in the 2007–2012 crisis. Our analysis finds the literature is dominated by disciplinary silos, with economics studies predominantly citing each other and relative isolation of psychiatry and substance abuse journals. Different philosophical approaches to assessing causality appear to contribute to varying interpretations, a tendency that is unlikely to be resolved without a shift in research norms. We conclude by calling for more inter-disciplinary research that combines empirical findings with a search for plausible mechanisms. This approach would evaluate not only the effects of economic shocks but also the mechanisms that offer protection against them.
To assess how the frequency of low fruit and vegetable consumption has changed in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) between 2001 and 2010 and to identify factors associated with low consumption.
Cross-sectional surveys. A standard questionnaire was administered at both time points to examine fruit and vegetable consumption frequency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between demographic, socio-economic and health behavioural variables and low fruit and vegetable consumption in 2010.
Nationally representative population samples from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine.
Adults aged 18 years and older.
Between 2001 and 2010 notable changes occurred in fruit and vegetable consumption in many countries resulting in a slight overall deterioration in diet. By 2010 in six countries about 40 % of the population was eating fruit once weekly or less often, while for vegetables the corresponding figure was in excess of 20 % in every country except Azerbaijan. A worse socio-economic situation, negative health behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and rural residence were all associated with low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption.
International dietary guidelines emphasise the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption. The scale of inadequate consumption of these food groups among much of the population in many FSU countries and its link to socio-economic disadvantage are deeply worrying. This highlights the urgent need for a greater focus to be placed on population nutrition policies to avoid nutrition-related diseases in the FSU countries.
Ageing and urbanization leading to sedentary lifestyles have been the major explanations proposed for a dramatic rise in diabetes worldwide and have been the variables used to predict future diabetes rates. However, a transition to Western diets has been suggested as an alternative driver. We sought to determine what socio-economic and dietary factors are the most significant population-level contributors to diabetes prevalence rates internationally.
Multivariate regression models were used to study how market sizes of major food products (sugars, cereals, vegetable oils, meats, total joules) corresponded to diabetes prevalence, incorporating lagged and cumulative effects. The underlying social determinants of food market sizes and diabetes prevalence rates were also studied, including ageing, income, urbanization, overweight prevalence and imports of foodstuffs.
Data were obtained from 173 countries.
Population-based survey recipients were the basis for diabetes prevalence and food market data.
We found that increased income tends to increase overall food market size among low- and middle-income countries, but the level of food importation significantly shifts the content of markets such that a greater proportion of available joules is composed of sugar and related sweeteners. Sugar exposure statistically explained why urbanization and income have been correlated with diabetes rates.
Current diabetes projection methods may estimate future diabetes rates poorly if they fail to incorporate the impact of nutritional factors. Imported sugars deserve further investigation as a potential population-level driver of global diabetes.
In this study we examine black voting in the 2008 presidential election. Recognizing the significance of having an African American win the presidency, we evaluate black political attitudes in 2008 vis-à-vis 2004, place black turnout in historical context, and discuss the problem of vote overreporting. The issue of vote overreporting plagues surveys, and this is particularly notable among African American respondents. The momentousness of Barack Obama's candidacy and subsequent election may further complicate black turnout responses. On the one hand, an African American Democratic presidential nominee is expected to mobilize blacks, but on the other hand this situation is also expected to increase the social desirability to misreport voting. To get around this intractable problem with surveys, we evaluate validated black turnout in the state of Georgia, which provides individual-level data on the population of registered voters. The validated black turnout numbers are much lower than those reported in national studies like the Current Population Survey, but our analysis indicates that compared to 2004, African American registration and voting in Georgia were markedly higher in 2008.
This article reports the findings of parallel studies of variable subject presence in two closely related sign language varieties, Australian Sign Language (Auslan) and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL). The studies expand upon research in American Sign Language (ASL) (Wulf, Dudis, Bayley, & Lucas, 2002) that found subject pronouns with noninflecting verbs to be more frequently unexpressed than expressed. The ASL study reported that null subject use correlates with both social and linguistic factors, the strongest of which is referential congruence with an antecedent in a preceding clause. Findings from the Auslan and NZSL studies also indicated that chains of reference play a stronger role in subject presence than either morphological factors (e.g., verb type), or social factors of age, gender, ethnicity, and language background. Overall results are consistent with the view that this feature of syntactic variation may be better accounted for in terms of information structure than sociolinguistic effects.
In this chapter, we will examine the historical relationship between signed languages used in the United Kingdom (British Sign Language, or BSL), Australia (Australian Sign Language, or Auslan) and New Zealand (New Zealand Sign Language, or NZSL), as well as work on sociolinguistic variation and language change in all three sign language varieties. Following Johnston (2003), we will adopt the acronym BANZSL here (i.e., British, Australian and New Zealand Sign Language) to refer to all three signed languages as a group. We will begin by outlining the history of BSL and its transmission to the former British colonies of Australia and New Zealand, before discussing studies that have compared similarities in the lexicon of BSL, Auslan and NZSL. We will then explore the relationship between phonological, lexical and syntactic variation and change in these three related languages and social factors such as a signer's regional origin, age and gender.
The deaf communities in the UK, Australia and New Zealand
The prevalence of deafness in developed societies has long been estimated to be about 0.1 percent of the population (i.e., one in one thousand people) (Schein 1968, Schein & Delk 1974). If this were the case, one would expect the deaf communities of the UK, Australia and New Zealand to number 60,000, 20,000 and 4,000 individuals respectively, based on the national populations of each country. The precise number of signing deaf people in all three countries is, however, unknown.
In this study, we consider variation in a class of signs in Australian and New Zealand Sign Languages that includes the signs think, name, and clever. In their citation form, these signs are specified for a place of articulation at or near the signer's forehead or above, but are sometimes produced at lower locations. An analysis of 2667 tokens collected from 205 deaf signers in five sites across Australia and of 2096 tokens collected from 138 deaf signers from three regions in New Zealand indicates that location variation in these signs reflects both linguistic and social factors, as also reported for American Sign Language (Lucas, Bayley, & Valli, 2001). Despite similarities, however, we find that some of the particular factors at work, and the kinds of influence they have, appear to differ in these three signed languages. Moreover, our results suggest that lexical frequency may also play a role.
Our objective was to establish a mechanism for monitoring indicators of the state of health of inner London's mental illness services. Data were collected for a census week around 15 June 1994. Local data collection was coordinated by consultant pyschiatrists working in inner London services. Twelve services participated with a combined catchment population of 2.6 m. They included ten London services which were among the 17 most socially deprived areas of England. Main indicators were admission bed occupancy levels (including an estimate of the total requirement), proportion of patients detained under the Mental Health Act, number of assaults committed by inpatients, number of emergency assessments and CPN caseloads. The mean true bed occupancy (which reflects the number of patients who were receiving, or required, in-patient care on census day) was 130%. To meet all need for acute psychiatric care, including for patients who should have been admitted and those discharged prematurely because beds were full, a further 426 beds would have been required. Fifty per cent of patients were legally detained. Physical assaults were virtually a daily occurrence on the admission units. Average community pyschiatric nurse caseloads were 37, suggesting that the majority were not working intensively with limited caseloads of patients with severe mental illness. These indicators, although imperfect, will allow for some measurement of the impact of local and central initiatives on the poor state of London's mental illness services.
High quality epitaxial BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 have been grown on MgO, stabilized at a one unit cell height, and grown to film thicknesses of 0.5 - 0.7 μm. These relatively thick films remain adherent when thermally cycled between growth temperatures and room temperature, are crack free with high optical quality, and have both in-plane and out-of-plane X-ray rocking curves of 0.3–0.5°. These films have been grown using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods starting with the TiO2 layer of the perovskite structure. The TiO2-Iayer/MgO interface uniquely satisfies electrostatic requirements for perovskite heteroepitaxy and provides the template structure that leads to the high quality films that are obtained. Wavelength dependence of optical loss has been characterized between 475 nm and 705 nm with loss coefficients < 1dB/cm being obtained at the He-Ne wavelength.