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This paper provides a detailed overview of how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the income of charitable organisations – an under-researched theme within social policy, which thus far has largely focused on the impact of the pandemic on individuals’ and households’ wellbeing. It analyses a unique longitudinal dataset that follows through time c.90,000 charities in England and Wales. The results, for the first time, illustrate the scale of the pandemic’s financial impact on the charitable sector: the median charity experienced a 13% real decline in annual income, while a charity at the 25th percentile of the annual relative growth distribution experienced an income decline of 43%. Importantly these annual declines are much more sizeable than those associated with the Great Recession and subsequent period of public spending austerity. Smaller charities, particularly those with an income under £100k, have been most significantly affected. The declines have been pervasive, extending across most fields of charitable activity, though certain charitable fields have seen particularly acute declines. While there has rightly been considerable emphasis on the important role of voluntary action in responding to the pandemic, this new empirical evidence helps to communicate the extent of the recent challenges faced by the charitable sector.
A combination of olanzapine and the opioid receptor antagonist samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) has been approved in the United States for the treatment of adults with schizophrenia or adults with bipolar I disorder. In a phase 3 study in adults with schizophrenia (ENLIGHTEN-2), OLZ/SAM treatment was associated with significantly less weight gain compared with olanzapine. Prespecified subgroup analyses explored the consistency of the weight mitigation effect of OLZ/SAM vs olanzapine across demographic subgroups in ENLIGHTEN-2.
The multicenter, randomized, double-blind ENLIGHTEN-2 study (NCT02694328) included outpatients aged 18–55 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia based on DSM-5 criteria, a body mass index (BMI) of 18 to 30 kg/m2, and stable body weight (self-reported change ≤5% for ≥3 months before study entry). Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive OLZ/SAM or olanzapine for 24 weeks. Co-primary endpoints (previously reported) were percent change in body weight and proportion of patients with at least 10% weight gain from baseline at week 24. Prespecified exploratory subgroup analyses by sex, age, self-reported race, and baseline BMI were conducted.
At week 24, treatment with OLZ/SAM resulted in numerically less percent weight gain than with olanzapine across all subgroups evaluated. The proportion of patients with at least 10% weight gain was smaller in each subgroup treated with OLZ/SAM vs olanzapine.
In these exploratory subgroup analyses from the ENLIGHTEN-2 study, weight-mitigating effects of OLZ/SAM vs olanzapine were observed consistently across patient subgroups and were in line with results from the overall study population.
A combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) that provides the efficacy of olanzapine while mitigating weight gain was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. To improve communication of the OLZ/SAM benefit-risk profile, a structured framework was utilized.
The Benefit-Risk Action Team framework was used to evaluate OLZ/SAM, with analyses completed for each pivotal study. ENLIGHTEN-1 evaluated antipsychotic efficacy and safety. ENLIGHTEN-2 evaluated the weight profile of OLZ/SAM vs olanzapine. Benefit-risk outcomes were selected based on study outcome parameters, known risks of olanzapine and samidorphan, and public health importance. A subset of opioid antagonist risks was not assessed due to clinical trial exclusions; however, they were factored into the overall evaluation. Risk differences and confidence intervals were analyzed.
In ENLIGHTEN-1, OLZ/SAM had a lower risk of psychiatric discontinuation and nonresponse to treatment compared with placebo; higher risks of hyperprolactinemia, weight gain (≥7%), sedation, and worsening of fasting triglycerides and glucose, and no difference for fasting total and LDL cholesterol, neutropenia, orthostatic hypotension, and movement disorders. In ENLIGHTEN-2, OLZ/SAM had reduced risks of weight gain and waist circumference increase compared to olanzapine along with similar risks of relapse and psychiatric discontinuation and no difference in metabolic worsening, neutropenia, hyperprolactinemia, orthostatic hypotension, sedation, and movement disorders.
Based on this assessment, OLZ/SAM has comparable efficacy and a safety profile consistent with olanzapine, with reduced weight gain. A structured approach to assessing the benefit-risk profile of a product facilitates transparent evaluation and communication.
Clinically significant weight gain (CSWG) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study describes CSWG and comorbidities observed in patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) and schizophrenia (SZ) after initiating select second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs).
Percent change in weight, CSWG (=7% weight increase), and incident comorbidities within 12 months of treatment were assessed among patients initiating oral SGAs of moderate-to-high weight gain risk using medical records/claims (OM1 Real-World Data Cloud; January 2013-February 2020). Oral SGAs included clozapine (SZ), iloperidone (SZ), paliperidone (SZ), olanzapine, olanzapine/fluoxetine (BD-I), quetiapine, and risperidone. Outcomes were stratified by baseline body mass index and reported descriptively.
Among patients with BD-I (N = 9142) and SZ (N = 8174), approximately three-quarters were overweight/obese at baseline. During treatment (mean duration = 30 weeks), average percent weight increase was 3.7% (BD-I) and 3.3% (SZ). Average percent weight increase was highest for underweight/normal weight patients (BD-I = 5.5%; SZ = 4.8%), followed by overweight (BD-I = 3.8%; SZ = 3.4%) and obese patients (BD-I = 2.7%; SZ = 2.3%). Within 3 months of treatment, 12% of all patients experienced CSWG. A total of 11.3% (BD-I) and 14.7% (SZ) of patients developed coronary artery disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or type 2 diabetes within 12 months of treatment; development of comorbidities was highest among overweight/obese patients and those with CSWG.
Patients who were underweight/normal weight at baseline had the greatest percent change in weight during treatment. Increased comorbidities were observed within 12 months of treatment, specifically among overweight/obese patients and those with CSWG. The magnitude of weight gain and development of comorbidities were similar for patients with BD-I and SZ.
An open-label extension study (NCT02873208) evaluated the long-term tolerability, safety, and efficacy of combination olanzapine/samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) treatment in patients with schizophrenia. This qualitative sub study explored perceptions of benefit, burden, and satisfaction with previous medications and OLZ/SAM.
Semi-structured interviews (60 minutes; audio-recorded) were conducted. Interviewer sensitivity training, senior interviewer oversight, and a list of common medications to aid recall supported data collection. Interview transcripts were content coded and analyzed (NVivo v11.0).
All 41 patients reported a lifetime burden with schizophrenia adversely impacting employment, relationships, emotional health, social activities, and daily tasks. Hospitalization for schizophrenia management was another reported aspect of disease burden. Although most (n=32) patients reported previous medication benefits, side effects affecting physical, emotional/behavioral, and cognitive functioning were reported by all (n=41). Following OLZ/SAM treatment, 39/41 patients (95%) reported improvements in symptoms including hallucinations, paranoia, depression, sleep, and concentration. Furthermore, patients described improvements in self-esteem, social activities, relationships, and daily activities. Twenty-three patients (56%) reported side effects attributed to OLZ/SAM; lack of energy (n=12 [29%]) and dry mouth (n= 5 [12%]) were most common. Twenty-four (59%) patients were “very satisfied” with OLZ/SAM; most (n=35 [85%]) preferred to continue OLZ/SAM vs switching to another medication. As most substudy patients (n=40; 98%) completed the extension study, satisfied patients may be overrepresented in this analysis.
This qualitative interview approach provided valuable insight into patients’ experiences with previous medications and OLZ/SAM. Overall, most patients reported treatment satisfaction and improvements in symptoms, function, and health-related quality of life with OLZ/SAM.
Olanzapine effectively treats schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder (BD-I); however, its use is hindered by significant weight gain. A combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) is in development to provide the efficacy of olanzapine while mitigating olanzapine-associated weight gain through opioid-receptor blockade. Here, we summarize OLZ/SAM clinical data.
The OLZ/SAM development program consists of 18 phase 1–3 clinical studies evaluating antipsychotic and weight mitigation efficacy of OLZ/SAM, along with pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability. Safety evaluation also included metabolic laboratory assessments.
OLZ/SAM significantly improved psychotic symptoms (measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale); improvements were similar to that observed with olanzapine vs placebo. OLZ/SAM resulted in significantly less weight gain than olanzapine. Additionally, 2 long-term phase 3 extension studies confirmed the durability of antipsychotic effect, as well as stabilization of weight and metabolic parameters in those continuing treatment. Supporting the potential use of OLZ/SAM in BD-I, OLZ/SAM or olanzapine resulted in bioequivalent olanzapine plasma concentrations, and OLZ/SAM did not affect lithium or valproate pharmacokinetics. OLZ/SAM treatment had no clinically relevant effects on ECG parameters (including QTc interval). OLZ/SAM and olanzapine safety were similar, except for reduced weight gain with OLZ/SAM; no additional safety risks were identified.
Data across 18 OLZ/SAM studies in >1600 subjects support an antipsychotic efficacy and safety profile for OLZ/SAM that is similar to olanzapine, with significantly less weight gain than olanzapine. OLZ/SAM is a potential new treatment for schizophrenia and BD-I patients needing efficacious long-term treatment with reduced risk of weight gain.
Among patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BD-I) treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), clinically-significant weight gain (CSWG) and treatment interruptions (TIs) are challenges that may result in morbidity/mortality.
CSWG and TIs were assessed among patients who initiated oral SGAs of moderate-to-high weight gain risk (no exposure to index SGAs/first-generation antipsychotics for =12 months) using medical records/claims (OM1 Data Cloud; January 2013-February 2020). Outcomes included CSWG (=7% increase in baseline weight) and TIs (switches [to SGAs of low weight gain risk/long-acting injectables] or discontinuations [no SGAs for >30 days]). Descriptive analyses included proportions of patients with CSWG and TIs, and median time to these outcomes.
Approximately three-quarters of patients were overweight/obese at baseline (SZ: N=8,174; BD-I: N=9,142). Within 3 months of SGA initiation, 12% of all patients experienced CSWG. For patients on treatment with index SGAs for >6 months (SZ: 29%; BD-I: 27%), 28% (SZ) and 30% (BD-I) experienced CSWG during follow-up. Median time to CSWG was 14 weeks. CSWG results were numerically similar among patients with SZ and BD-I.
Over 96% of patients had TIs during follow-up (median time of 12 [SZ] and 13 [BD-I] weeks). Among patients with CSWG and subsequent TIs and weight measurements, 74% did not return to baseline weight after interrupting treatment; the remainder returned to baseline weight with median times of 38 (SZ) and 39 (BD-I) weeks. Results suggest that most patients with CSWG do not return to baseline weight after stopping treatment with oral SGAs of moderate-to-high weight gain risk.
Combination olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM), in development for schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder, is intended to provide the efficacy of olanzapine while mitigating olanzapine-associated weight gain. OLZ/SAM safety, tolerability, and efficacy from a 52-week open-label extension study in patients with schizophrenia are reported.
Patients previously completing the 4-week, double-blind ENLIGHTEN-1 study switched from OLZ/SAM, olanzapine, or placebo to OLZ/SAM. Assessments included adverse events (AEs), weight, vital signs, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores. Baseline was prior to first dose of OLZ/SAM in the extension study.
In total, 281 patients enrolled, 277 received ≥1 OLZ/SAM dose, and 183 (66.1%) completed 52 weeks. Reasons for discontinuation included patient withdrawal (15.5%), loss to follow-up (6.9%), AEs (5.8%), and lack of efficacy (1.8%). AEs were reported in 136 (49.1%) patients; increased weight (13%) and somnolence (8%) were most common. Ten serious AEs were reported in eight patients (2.9%); none were considered treatment related. There were no deaths. Mean (SD) baseline weight was 79.1 (17.8) kg. Mean weight change from baseline to week 52 was 1.86 kg (2.79% increase). PANSS total and CGI-S scores continued to decline over 52 weeks (mean [95% CI] changes from baseline to week 52: −16.2 [−18.5, −14.0] and −0.9 [−1.0, −0.8], respectively).
OLZ/SAM was generally well tolerated in this extension study; most patients completed the 52-week treatment period with sustained improvement in schizophrenia symptoms. Mean increases in weight stabilized by week 6 with limited subsequent change through end of treatment.
Opioid antagonists may mitigate medication-associated weight gain and/or metabolic dysregulation. ENLIGHTEN-2 evaluated a combination of olanzapine and the opioid antagonist samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) vs olanzapine for effects on weight gain and metabolic parameters over 24 weeks in adults with stable schizophrenia.
This phase 3, double-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02694328) enrolled adults 18–55 yo with stable schizophrenia, randomized 1:1 to once-daily OLZ/SAM or olanzapine. Co-primary endpoints were percent change from baseline in body weight and proportion of patients with ≥10% weight gain at week 24. Waist circumference and fasting metabolic parameters were also measured. Completers could enter a 52-week open-label safety extension.
561 patients were randomized: 550 were dosed, 538 had ≥1 post-baseline weight assessment, and 352 (64%) completed; 10.9% discontinued due to AEs. At week 24, least squares mean (SE) percent weight change from baseline was 4.21 (0.68)% with OLZ/SAM and 6.59 (0.67)% with olanzapine (difference, −2.38 [0.76]%; P=0.003). Fewer patients treated with OLZ/SAM (17.8%) had ≥10% weight gain vs olanzapine (29.8%; odds ratio=0.50; P=0.003). The change from baseline in waist circumference was significantly smaller with OLZ/SAM (P<0.001). Common AEs (≥10%) with OLZ/SAM and olanzapine were weight increased (24.8%, 36.2%), somnolence (21.2%, 18.1%), dry mouth (12.8%, 8.0%), and increased appetite (10.9%, 12.3%), respectively. Metabolic parameter changes were generally small and remained stable with long-term OLZ/SAM treatment.
OLZ/SAM treatment limited weight gain associated with olanzapine. Metabolic parameter changes were generally small, similar between groups over 24 weeks, and remained stable over an additional 52 weeks of open-label OLZ/SAM treatment.
A combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) is in development for schizophrenia to provide the efficacy of olanzapine while mitigating olanzapine-associated weight gain. The objective of this phase 1 exploratory study was to assess metabolic treatment effects of OLZ/SAM.
Healthy, non-obese adults (18–40 years) were randomized 2:2:1 to once-daily OLZ/SAM, olanzapine, or placebo for 21 days. Assessments included oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, weight gain, and adverse event (AE) monitoring. Treatment effects were estimated with analysis of covariance.
Sixty subjects were randomized (OLZ/SAM, n=24; olanzapine, n=24; placebo, n=12); 19 (79.2%), 22 (91.7%), and 11 (91.7%), respectively, completed the study. In the OGTT, olanzapine led to significant hyperinsulinemia (P<0.0001) and significantly reduced insulin sensitivity (2-hour Matsuda index) at day 19 vs baseline (P=0.0012), changes not observed with OLZ/SAM. No significant between-group differences were observed for change from baseline in clamp-derived insulin sensitivity index at day 21. Least squares mean weight change from baseline was similar with OLZ/SAM (3.16 kg) and olanzapine (2.87 kg); both were significantly higher than placebo (0.57 kg; both P<0.01). Caloric intake significantly decreased from baseline to day 22 with OLZ/SAM (P=0.015) but not with olanzapine or placebo. Forty-nine subjects (81.7%) experienced ≥1 AE (OLZ/SAM, 87.5%; olanzapine, 79.2%; placebo, 75.0%).
In this exploratory study, hyperinsulinemia and decreased insulin sensitivity were observed in the OGTT with olanzapine but not with OLZ/SAM or placebo. Clamp-derived insulin sensitivity index and weight changes were similar with OLZ/SAM and olanzapine in healthy subjects during the 3-week study.
Background: ALKS 3831, a combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM), is in development for the treatment of schizophrenia and is intended to provide the antipsychotic efficacy of olanzapine while mitigating olanzapine-associated weight gain. We report the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of OLZ/SAM in patients with schizophrenia in a phase 3, 52-week, open-label extension study.
Patients aged 18–70 years who completed a previous phase 3, 4-week, inpatient acute efficacy study were switched from OLZ/SAM, olanzapine, or placebo to OLZ/SAM. Study assessments included adverse events (AEs), weight, clinical laboratory testing, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores.
281 patients were enrolled; 277 (mean age, 41.4 years) received ≥1 dose of study drug, and 183 (66.1%) completed the extension study. The most common reasons for discontinuation were withdrawal by patient (15.5%), loss to follow-up (6.9%), and AEs (5.8%). AEs were reported in 136 (49.1%) patients; most were mild in severity. The most common AEs were increased weight (13.4%), somnolence (8.3%), nasopharyngitis (4.0%), and headache (4.0%). Mean weight increase from baseline in patients completing 52 weeks of treatment was 1.86 kg, a 2.79% increase. No clinically significant changes in mean laboratory parameters were observed. Mean (SD) changes from baseline to week 52 in PANSS total score and CGI-S score were –16.2 (15.41) and –0.9 (0.92), respectively (both P<0.001).
OLZ/SAM was generally well tolerated with a safety profile that supports long-term treatment. During this 52-week extension study, there were improvements in schizophrenia symptoms.
ALKS 3831, a combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) in development for schizophrenia, is intended to mitigate olanzapine-associated weight gain. This thorough QT (tQT) study evaluated OLZ/SAM effects on electrocardiogram parameters.
In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, 100 patients with stable schizophrenia were randomized 3:2 to either receive OLZ/SAM 10/10 mg (therapeutic dose) on days 2–4, 20/20 mg on days 5–8, and 30/30 mg (supratherapeutic dose) on days 9–13 with moxifloxacin-matching placebo on days 1 and 14, or a single dose of moxifloxacin 400 mg and matching placebo on days 1 and 14 (nested crossover design). Drug concentration relation to change from baseline in Fridericia-corrected QTc (ΔQTcF) was evaluated using a linear mixed-effect concentration-QTc (C-QTc) model. Adverse events were assessed.
The slope (90% CI) of the C-QTc was not significant for olanzapine or samidorphan (0.03 [−0.01, 0.08] and 0.01 [−0.01, 0.04] msec per ng/mL, respectively). Predicted placebo-corrected ΔQTcF (90% CI) was 2.33 (−2.72, 7.38) and 1.38 (−3.37, 6.12) msec at the observed geometric mean maximal concentration of olanzapine (62.6 ng/mL) and samidorphan (75.1 ng/mL), respectively, on day 13. A clinically relevant QT effect (ie, placebo-corrected ΔQTcF ≥10 msec) can be excluded for olanzapine and samidorphan concentrations up to ≈110 and ≈160 ng/mL, respectively. Assay sensitivity was confirmed by the C-QTc relationship of moxifloxacin. OLZ/SAM was well tolerated.
OLZ/SAM, in doses and plasma concentrations up to supratherapeutic levels, was well tolerated and had no clinically relevant effects on electrocardiogram parameters, including QT interval, in patients with schizophrenia.
ALKS 3831, currently under development for the treatment of schizophrenia, is composed of olanzapine (OLZ) and a fixed dose of 10mg of samidorphan. In a Phase 2 study in stable patients with schizophrenia, ALKS 3831mitigated OLZ-associated weight gain while maintaining an antipsychotic efficacy profile similar to OLZ.
To assess the efficacy and safety of ALKS 3831 in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.
This was a Phase 3, 4-week, randomized, double-blind, active and placebo (PBO)-controlled study of ALKS 3831 in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02634346). Eligible patients (N=403) were randomized 1:1:1 to receive ALKS 3831, OLZ, or PBO. Patients were treated in an inpatient setting for the first 2weeks of the study and could be treated as inpatients or outpatients for the remaining 2weeks. Patients were excluded if they received OLZ within 6months prior to screening. Antipsychotic efficacy was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and Clinical Global Impression–Severity (CGI-S) and CGI–Improvement (CGI-I) scales. Safety and tolerability were assessed as adverse events (AEs).
Of 401 randomized patients who received ALKS 3831, OLZ, or PBO, 91%, 89%, and 83% of patients, respectively, completed treatment. The most common reason for discontinuation was withdrawal by patient (6% in both the ALKS 3831and PBO groups, and 7% in the OLZ group). Baseline characteristics were generally similar between groups; however, baseline mean body mass index was higher in the OLZ group than in the ALKS 3831 group. Baseline mean±standard deviation scores were 101.7±11.9 for PANSS total score and 5.1±0.7 for CGI-S scale score. The mean OLZ dose was 18.4mg/day in both active treatment arms. Least squares (LS) mean difference±standard error (SE) vs PBO from baseline to Week 4 in PANSS total score was –6.4±1.8 (P<.001) for the ALKS 3831 group and –5.3±1.8 (P=.004) for the OLZ group. LS mean difference±SE vs PBO from baseline to Week 4 in CGI-S scale score was −0.4±0.1 (P=.002) for the ALKS3831 group and −0.4±0.1 (P<.001) for the OLZ group. The percentage of patients with improvement in PANSS response (≥30% from baseline) at Week 4 was 60%, 54%, and 38% in the ALKS 3831, OLZ, and PBO groups, respectively. The percentage of patients with an improvement in CGI-I scale response (score of ≤2) at Week 4 was 58%, 51%, and 33% in the ALKS 3831, OLZ, and PBO groups, respectively. Discontinuation due to AEs was low in all groups. Common AEs (≥5% in any group) included weight gain, somnolence, dry mouth, anxiety, headache, and schizophrenia.
Treatment with ALKS 3831 was more effective than PBO, as measured by the PANSS and CGI-S scale, and its antipsychotic efficacy was similar to the active control OLZ. The safety profile of ALKS 3831 was similar toOLZ.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Alkermes, Inc.
To evaluate the impact of no-touch terminal room no-touch disinfection using ultraviolet wavelength C germicidal irradiation (UVGI) on C. difficile infection (CDI) rates on inpatient units with persistently high rates of CDI despite infection control measures.
Interrupted time-series analysis with a comparison arm.
3 adult hematology-oncology units in a large, tertiary-care hospital.
We conducted a 12-month prospective valuation of UVGI. Rooms of patients with CDI or on contact precautions were targeted for UVGI upon discharge using an electronic patient flow system. Incidence rates of healthcare-onset CDI were compared for the baseline period (January 2013–December 2013) and intervention period (February 2014–January 2015) on study units and non–study units using a mixed-effects Poisson regression model with random effects for unit and time in months.
During a 52-week intervention period, UVGI was deployed for 542 of 2,569 of all patient discharges (21.1%) on the 3 study units. The CDI rate declined 25% on study units and increased 16% on non-study units during the intervention compared to the baseline period. We detected a significant association between UVGI and decrease in CDI incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26–0.94; P=.03) on the study units but not on the non-study units. The impact of UVGI use on average room-cleaning time and turnaround time was negligible compared to the baseline period.
Targeted deployment of UVGI to rooms of high-risk patients at discharge resulted in a substantial reduction of CDI incidence without adversely impacting room turnaround.
Atypical antipsychotics are widely used in bipolar mania. However, the
efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in bipolar depression has not been
To evaluate olanzapine monotherapy in patients with bipolar
Patients with bipolar depression received olanzapine (5–20mg/day,
n = 343) or placebo (n = l71) for 6
weeks. The primary outcome was change from baseline to end-point in
Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score. Secondary
outcomes included: Clinical Global impression - Bipolar Version (CGI-BP)
scale, 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) and Young
Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores, and the rate of response (≥50%
reduction in MADRS at end-point), recovery (MADRS ≤12 for ≥4 weeks plus
treatment completion) and remission (MADRS ≤8). The trial was registered
with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00510146).
Olanzapine demonstrated: significantly greater
(P<0.04) improvements on MADRS (least-squares mean
change -13.82 v. -11.67), HRSD-17 and YMRS total scores
and all CGI-BP subscale scores v. placebo; significantly
(P≤0.05) more response and remission, but not
recovery; significantly (P<0.01) greater mean
increases in weight, fasting cholesterol and triglycerides; and
significantly more (P<0.001) patients gained ≥7% body
Olanzapine monotherapy appears to be efficacious in bipolar depression.
Additional long-term studies are warranted to confirm these results.
Safety findings were consistent with the known safety profile of
Samson and McDonnell (1990) proposed a definition of the term functional analysis. In a reply to that article, Jones and Owens maintained that Samson and McDonnell had failed to address sufficiently the complexities of this approach, particularly in the use of unobservables in functional analysis and the contextual nature of challenging behaviours. This paper attempts to provide a short reply to these contentions.
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