To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Saving endangered species presents a critical and increasingly pressing challenge for conservation and sustainability movements, and is also matter of survival and livelihoods for the world's poorest and vulnerable communities. In 1973, a global Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) was adopted to stem the extinction of many species. In 2015, as part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 15) the United Nations called for urgent action to protect endangered species and their natural habitats. This volume focuses on the legal implementation of CITES to achieve the global SDGs. Activating interdisciplinary analysis and case studies across jurisdictions, the contributors analyse the potential for CITES to promote more sustainable development, proposing international and national regulatory innovations for implementing CITES. They consider recent innovations and key intervention points along flora and fauna value chains, advancing coherent recommendations to strengthen CITES implementation, including through the regulation of trade in endangered species globally and locally.
Psychotic experiences (PE) are common in the general population, in particular in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PE have been shown to be associated with an increased risk for later psychotic disorders, mental disorders, and poorer functioning. Recent findings have highlighted the relevance of PE to many fields of healthcare, including treatment response in clinical services for anxiety & depression treatment, healthcare costs and service use. Despite PE relevance to many areas of mental health, and healthcare research, there remains a gap of information between PE researchers and experts in other fields. With this review, we aim to bridge this gap by providing a broad overview of the current state of PE research, and future directions. This narrative review aims to provide an broad overview of the literature on psychotic experiences, under the following headings: (1) Definition and Measurement of PE; (2) Risk Factors for PE; (3) PE and Health; (4) PE and Psychosocial Functioning; (5) Interventions for PE, (6) Future Directions.
Consumers, public officials, and even managers of health care and insurance are unhappy about care quality, access, and costs. This book shows that is because efforts to do something about these problems often rely on hope or conjecture, not rigorous evidence of effectiveness. In this book, experts in the field separate the speculative from the proven with regard to how care is rendered, how patients can be in control, how providers should be paid, and how disparities can be reduced – and they also identify the issues for which evidence is currently missing. It provides an antidote to frustration and a clear-eyed guide for forward progress, helping health care and insurance innovators make better decisions on deciding whether to go ahead now based on current evidence, to seek and wait for additional evidence, or to move on to different ideas. It will be useful to practitioners in hospital systems, medical groups, and insurance organizations and can also be used in executive and MBA teaching.
Campeche, one of the Spanish Empire's main Mexican ports, was a place where previously distinct cultures and populations intermingled during the colonial era (AD 1540–1680). Investigation of the town's central plaza revealed a Hispanic cemetery of multi-ethnic burials. The authors combine previous analyses with newly generated genome-wide data from 10 individuals to trace detailed life histories of the mostly young, local Indigenous Americans and first-generation European and African immigrants, none of whom show evidence of genetic admixture. These results provide insights into the individual lives and social divides of the town's founder communities and demonstrate how ancient DNA analyses can contribute to understanding early colonial encounters.
Research has shown a strong relationship between hallucinations and suicidal behaviour in general population samples. Whether hallucinations also index suicidal behaviour risk in groups at elevated risk of suicidal behaviour, namely in individuals with a sexual assault history, remains to be seen.
We assessed whether hallucinations were markers of risk for suicidal behaviour among individuals with a sexual assault history.
Using the cross-sectional 2007 (N = 7403) and 2014 (N = 7546) Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, we assessed for an interaction between sexual assault and hallucinations in terms of the odds of suicide attempt, as well as directly comparing the prevalence of suicide attempt in individuals with a sexual assault history with v. without hallucinations.
Individuals with a sexual assault history had increased odds of hallucinations and suicide attempt compared to individuals without a sexual assault history in both samples. There was a significant interaction between sexual assault and hallucinations in terms of the odds of suicide attempt. In total, 14–19% of individuals with a sexual assault history who did not report hallucinations had one or more suicide attempt. This increased to 33–52% of individuals with a sexual assault history who did report hallucinations (2007, aOR = 2.85, 1.71–4.75; 2014, aOR = 4.52, 2.78–7.35).
Hallucinations are a risk marker for suicide attempt even among individuals with an elevated risk of suicidal behaviour, specifically individuals with a sexual assault history. This finding highlights the clinical significance of hallucinations with regard to suicidal behaviour risk, even among high-risk populations.
The Health Service Executive National Clinical Programme for Eating Disorders (NCPED) launched a Model of Care for Eating Disorder Services in Ireland in 2018. Currently, one adult and two child and adolescent eating disorder services are operational out of a total of sixteen recommended. The three objectives of this paper are to describe the early (1) referral pattern, (2) level of service activity and (3) the level of service user satisfaction.
Monthly submitted service activity data from each service to the NCPED between March 2018 and October 2020 were retrospectively analysed. One hundred and fifty-nine carers and service users completed an experience of service questionnaire (ESQ). A descriptive analysis of referral pattern, level of service activity and ESQ was performed. A thematic analysis was performed on three qualitative questions on the ESQ.
There was substantial referral numbers to eating disorder services by 18 months (n = 258). The main referral source was community mental health teams. The majority (n = 222, 86%) of referrals were offered an assessment. The most common age profile was 10–17 years of age (n = 120, 54.1%), and anorexia nervosa was the most common disorder (n = 96, 43.2%). ESQ results demonstrate that most service users were satisfied with their service, and the main themes were carer involvement, staff expertise, therapeutic alliance and service access.
This preliminary service activity and service user satisfaction data highlight several issues, including trends when setting up a regional eating disorder service, potential pitfalls of pragmatic data collection and the need for adequate information-technology infrastructure.
Higher inflammation has been linked to poor physical and mental health outcomes, and mortality, but few studies have rigorously examined whether changes in perceived stress and depressive symptoms are associated with increased inflammation within family caregivers and non-caregivers in a longitudinal design.
REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke cohort study.
Participants included 239 individuals who were not caregivers at baseline but transitioned to providing substantial and sustained caregiving over time. They were initially matched to 241 non-caregiver comparisons on age, sex, race, education, marital status, self-rated health, and history of cardiovascular disease. Blood was drawn at baseline and approximately 9.3 years at follow-up for both groups.
Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression, inflammatory biomarkers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, D dimer, tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 1, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-10 taken at baseline and follow-up.
Although at follow-up, caregivers showed significantly greater worsening in perceived stress and depressive symptoms compared to non-caregivers, there were few significant associations between depressive symptoms or perceived stress on inflammation for either group. Inflammation, however, was associated with multiple demographic and health variables, including age, race, obesity, and use of medications for hypertension and diabetes for caregivers and non-caregivers.
These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the associations between stress, depressive symptoms, and inflammation in older adults, where these associations may depend on demographic, disease, and medication effects. Future studies should examine whether resilience factors may prevent increased inflammation in older caregivers.
In this chapter, we study risks associated with movements of interest rates in financial markets. We begin with a brief discussion of the term structure of interest rates. We then discuss commonly used interest rate sensitive securities. This is followed by the study of different measures of sensitivity to interest rates, including duration and convexity. We consider mitigating interest rate risk through hedging and immunization. Finally, we take a more in-depth look at the drivers of interest rate term structure dynamics.
In this chapter, we present the frequency-severity model, which is implicit in common risk calculations used in practice. In this model, the total loss from a risk, or set of risks, is treated as a random sum of random, identically distributed individual losses. If the frequency and severity random variables are independent, then the mean and variance of the aggregate loss can easily be calculated from the moments of the frequency and severity distributions. However, numerical methods are usually required for other metrics, such as quantiles or expected shortfall. We show how to implement these methods and discuss the limitations of this type of model, arising from the independence assumptions.
In this chapter, we consider qualitative and quantitative aspects of risk related to the development, implementation, and uses of quantitative models in enterprise risk management (ERM). First, we discuss the different ways that model risk arises, including defective models, inappropriate applications, and inadequate or inappropriate interpretation of the results. We consider the lifecycle of a model – from development, through regular updating and revision, to the decommissioning stage. We review quantitative approaches to measuring model and parameter uncertainty, based on a Bayesian framework. Finally, we discuss some aspects of model governance, and some potential methods for mitigating model risk.
In this chapter, we review the different methods available to a firm that wants to transfer risk. First, we consider the traditional route of insurance, or reinsurance. We describe the different types of insurance contracts, and analyse their advantages and disadvantages. We then consider captive insurance companies, which are insurance companies that are owned by the organization that is transferring risk. Next, we discuss securitization of risk, where risk is packaged into investments that are sold off in the capital markets. One of the most interesting examples of securitized insurance risk is the catastrophe bond, or cat bond. We also look at examples of securitization of demographic risk, through pandemic bonds and longevity derivatives.
This well-balanced introduction to enterprise risk management integrates quantitative and qualitative approaches and motivates key mathematical and statistical methods with abundant real-world cases - both successes and failures. Worked examples and end-of-chapter exercises support readers in consolidating what they learn. The mathematical level, which is suitable for graduate and senior undergraduate students in quantitative programs, is pitched to give readers a solid understanding of the concepts and principles involved, without diving too deeply into more complex theory. To reveal the connections between different topics, and their relevance to the real world, the presentation has a coherent narrative flow, from risk governance, through risk identification, risk modelling, and risk mitigation, capped off with holistic topics - regulation, behavioural biases, and crisis management - that influence the whole structure of ERM. The result is a text and reference that is ideal for graduate and senior undergraduate students, risk managers in industry, and anyone preparing for ERM actuarial exams.